Volume 1, Issue 1, June 1998
ISSN 1096-4886 http://www.westerncriminology.org/Western_Criminology_Review.htm
(Follow the highlighted session number to return to the respective proceedings session number.--Ed.)
#1 - ETHICAL CONCERNS
AMONG CRIMINAL JUSTICE TEACHERS, RESEARCHERS AND PRACTITIONERS
Kathleen Auerhahn, University of California, Riverside, "Selective Incapacitation and the Problem of Prediction: A Replication of Greenwood and Abrahamse"
For nearly two centuries, the purpose of incarcerative sanctions as utilized in the United States was presumed to be rehabilitation of the offender. However, since the 1970s, the rehabilitative consensus has steadily eroded, only to be replaced with a growing consensus about the incapacitative and retributive functions of imprisonment. Public opinion surveys and legislative changes in sentencing policy in recent years provide substantial evidence for the existence of this new ideological consensus surrounding imprisonment. Peter Greenwood and Alan Abrahamse's 1982 proposal entitled "Selective Incapacitation" has greatly influenced incarceration policy in California; ethical problems inherent in preventive detention schemes as well as methodological inconsistencies in the original research warrant a re-examination of the proposal and of the empirical basis for its justification. Greenwood and Abrahamse's original research is replicated with a sample of California inmates (n =2188) and the results are discussed in light of the methodological and ethical limitations of the original proposal.
John E. Berecochea, California Department of Corrections, "The Limits of Experimental Design"
The American Heritage College Dictionary defines ethics as "The rules or standards governing the conduct of members of a profession." This presentation reflects on some of the limits imposed by the rules or standards of classical experimental designs. It discusses the differential importance of Type I and Type II errors in statistical analyses of experimental data. I will assert that the emphasis on reducing Type I errors in academic research may be contrary to the interests of correctional researchers in measuring the effectiveness of programs. It points to the decreasing importance of experimental designs and the growing importance of statistical modeling and risk management. If correctional research is to have a major, positive effect on adult corrections, it must shift its focus. The goals must be to identify programs that make a difference and provide information needed by correctional administrators to manage risks. For those trained in classical experimental designs, these goals may present serious ethical problems.
Charles A. Tracy, Portland State University, "Ethical Issues in Restorative Justice"
Restorative justice challenges most of the assumptions upon which our current retributive justice system is based. Teaching the concepts of restorative justice in a traditional criminal justice academic program often results in a direct attack upon the policies and practices of the institutions for which students are being prepared to work. This can result in some ethical issues and concerns that can not be ignored, particularly when there are conflicting views about justice among faculty and students. This presentation will address some of those issues and concerns.
Session #4 - CALIFORNIA JUSTICE CHALLENGE GRANTS: PROCESS AND PROGRESS
Al Lammers, California Board of Corrections, "California's Juvenile Justice Challenge Grant Program: An Emphasis on Accountability"
California's landmark legislation (SB 1760) passed in 1996, known as the Juvenile Crime Enforcement and Accountability Challenge Grant Program, set forth $50 million to encourage counties to create programs to prevent and reduce juvenile crime and delinquency. This discussion will highlight an overview of the past and present processes involved in funding and implementing the program as well as present and future approaches related to accountability and outcome measures.
Suzie Cohen, Suzie Cohen & Associates, "The Implications of Program and Research Implementation in the Aftermath of the Juvenile Justice Challenge Grant Process"
The experiences of a range of counties as a result of their Local Action Plan development will be discussed, including the benefits of public and interagency communication, planning, and information sharing. Elements such as program design, collaboration, community involvement and evaluation research are changing the way local agencies 'do business.'
Lesley McClelland, San Diego County Probation Department, "' Breaking the Cycles' Demonstration Project: San Diego County Challenge Grant"
San Diego County was selected to be a national model to develop the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's "Comprehensive Strategy for Serious, Violent and Chronic Juvenile Offenders. The Breaking Cycles Demonstration Project was designed as a system-wide strategy that reaches at-risk youth and families throughout San Diego County. The project provides a geographically diverse, multi-agency, seamless system of services to identified at-risk youth, juvenile offenders, and their siblings and families. The goals, objectives and outcome measures for this program will be presented.
Dave Lehman, Humboldt County Probation Department, "The Humboldt County Experience: Success Through Collaboration"
Humboldt County is engaged in all three of California's major juvenile justice research projects: The Repeat Offender Prevention Project, Targeted Truancy, and the Juvenile Offender Accountability Challenge Grant. Each of these projects involve multiple partnerships with law enforcement agencies, schools, volunteers, private non-profit agencies, mental health, child welfare, tribal agencies and others. Preliminary research data on these programs as well as PACE program (a multi-agency school-based day reporting program for high risk dual diagnosis court wards and their families) will be presented.
Jodi Lane, RAND, "Community Counts: Implementing 'Corrections of Place' and Including Community Input in the Practice of Juvenile Justice in Ventura County"
Ventura County's Challenge Grant is designed to bring theory to practice by using the concepts of Todd Clear's "Corrections of Place" in implementing local juvenile justice policy for high-risk youth. One component of "corrections of place" involves including community input in the implementation of justice. This presentation reports Ventura's approach to including community and their experience in listening to and incorporating local citizen feedback into the development of their Challenge program.
Session #5 - FAMILY VIOLENCE
Deborah M. Plechner and Doreen Anderson-Facile, University of California, Riverside, "Domestic Violence and Police Officer Perceptions: An Exploratory Analysis"
Over the past three decades social scientists have brought to light the problem of family violence. Most of this research has focused on the characteristics of victims and batterers. More recent research has examined the various legal policies and intervention programs that have been enacted to prevent partner violence. Using in-depth qualitative interviews, this project examines police attitudes and responses to domestic violence calls. In addition, this paper investigates the officers' perceptions of the actual violent incidents. A guiding question throughout the paper is the dynamics surrounding incidents of same-sex violence and incidents where women are the primary batterers, as seen through the eyes of the officers.
Doreen Anderson-Facile and Jami L. Brown, Department of Sociology, University of California Riverside, "Domestic Violence: The Effects of Mandatory Arrest in a Patriarchal Society"
Since the 1970s, legal policies and intervention programs have been enacted to prevent continued violence within intimate relationships. The policies and prevention programs, which include mandatory arrest of batterers and mandatory counseling for batterers, are socially recognized attempts at prevention and assistance. However, mandatory arrest laws do not apply to all forms of abuse experienced by victims, i.e. emotional, verbal, and psychological abuse. Moreover, the obvious initial response to mandatory arrest is that it effectively protects women, reduces recidivism, and places the responsibility of arrest on the legal system. Yet, by removing womens' situational power within the relationship, mandatory arrest may in fact further diminish womens' status within the family. This paper examines the role of patriarchy, the potential hardships placed on women, and the adverse social implications of mandatory arrest.
Elizabeth Dermody Leonard, Southern California College, "Convicted Survivors: The Imprisonment of Battered Women Who Kill"
Findings are presented from an exploratory study, which examines the lives and experiences of formerly battered women in prison for causing the death of their male abusers. In-depth interviews and surveys were conducted with a nonrandom sample of 45 women in one California prison. Survey findings indicate that the profile of convicted survivors of domestic violence differs substantially from that of the general population of California's women prisoners. Despite a clear lack of criminal or violent histories, the overwhelming majority of women who are held responsible for the death of abusive men receive first- or second-degree murder convictions and serve long, harsh sentences. The analysis of qualitative data identifies recurrent themes and processes that emerge from the narrative accounts of study participants.
Session #6 - DRUG COURTS
Brooke Bedrick, University of California Berkeley, "'Treatment' to 'Justice' in Oakland, CA"
Over the course of the 1990s the purpose guiding the operation of the Oakland Drug Court has shifted from the provision of "treatment" to the provision of "justice." This shift appears both in the ways judges and members of the probation department articulate the drug court project, and in the shifting symbolism of the court process itself. In particular, there has been change in the notion of what "realities" a drug court attends to and what the contract between the court, the probation department, and the defendant represents. Further, while Oakland's drug courts continue to operate within seriously constrained -- even inadequate -- resources, their programs have become increasingly concerned with the social costs of failed drug policies, especially the loss of generations of African Americans and other people of color to the criminal justice system. More broadly, the changes in the Oakland Drug Court provide a window to efforts by the judiciary, legislators, and the public to reformulate what criminal "justice" should look like and how it should operate in an admittedly unequal society. The paper concludes with observations about the meaning of the shift from "treatment" to "justice" in this larger context and the implications for a new, 21st century criminal justice.
Jennifer Swoboda, Department of Criminal Justice, California State University Long Beach, "Variation in Treatment Needs among Gender and Ethnic Groups: An Empirical study of the Los Angeles County Drug Courts"
Evaluations of the effectiveness
of drug treatment must take into account the specific needs of women
and racial/ethnic minorities. Treatment that has been designed by and
aimed at the white male will not suffice for other groups of addicts.
Few studies exist, however, that evaluate the effectiveness of
treatment among women and racial/ethnic minorities. This paper
examines differences between genders and races/ ethnicities among
clients enrolled in the LA County Drug Court Program in terms of
their perceived needs for treatment and differences in attitudes
between men and women regarding the drug treatment they received.
Carolyn Fetros, Department of Criminal Justice, California State University Long Beach, "Correlates of Success in Drug Court Programs in LA County"
Several courts across the country have implemented an increasingly popular alternative program targeting drug felony defendants. Utilizing both punitive action and treatment methods as a means of dealing with drug offenders, specialized drug courts have been developed in over 125 jurisdictions nationwide, including Los Angeles County. This study examined individuals who entered the Los Angeles County drug courts between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 1995 in an effort to identify any differences among those individuals who successfully completed the drug court program and those individuals who failed to complete the program. Analyses were conducted to determine whether participants who graduated from the drug court program differed from participants who were terminated from the drug court program in terms of background characteristics, prior history of drug use, and prior criminal history. Examination of these differences will help to conserve resources by providing treatment for those felony drug offenders who are most likely to benefit from drug court programs.
Sharon Grennan, County of Santa Clara Probation Dept., "Santa Clara County's Treatment Drug Court: What have we learned?"
Santa Clara County's Drug Court was started in September of 1995, as an alternative to long term incarceration. Approximately 7,000 misdemeanor and 4,000 felony drug cases come through the court system each year. The Treatment Court concept challenged each participant in the Judiciary, District Attorney's Office, Public Defender's Office, and the Probation Department to shed traditional roles and develop into a cohesive team. As a result, chronic addicts are offered treatment earlier in the court process in hopes of moving them permanently out of the criminal justice system. What does current research suggest regarding the effectiveness of treatment versus incarceration? What have we learned after two years of Drug Treatment Court involvement?
L. Thomas Winfree and Dennis M. Giever, New Mexico State University, "DWI, Drug Court Participants, First-Time Offenders, and Multiple Repeat Offenders: How Do They Differ?"
In 1995, Las Cruces Municipal Court Judge Stephen Ryan initiated one of the nation's first drug courts designed for alcoholic DWI offenders. In March of 1996, Judge Ryan agreed to begin random assignment of defendants eligible for DWI "Drug Court" to control and experimental groups. The researchers collected survey data from the experimental subjects, and matched them to official record information. In addition, similar data were collected from two other groups: Multiple repeat offenders, ineligible for Drug Court treatment, and those first-time offenders screened as non alcoholics. This report addresses a simple question: How different are the attitudes, orientations, and official records of the individuals assigned to the four groups? We address the implications of these findings for DWI drug courts in our paper.
Session #7 - GANGS
David Huizinga, Institute of Behavioral Sciences, "Developmental Risk Factors for Gang Membership"
Following a brief update to last year's WSC presentation on the volume of crime attributable to gang members, developmental pathways are examined across community, school, peer, and personal domains leading to gang membership. For this purpose, pathways through developmental stages are identified and their relationship to becoming a gang member, a non-gang serious offender, or a minor offender/non-delinquent is examined. Data for this report are taken from the Denver Youth Survey, an on-going longitudinal study of problem behavior.
Finn Esbensen, Department of Criminal Justice, University of Nebraska at Omaha, and Ni He, Division of Social and Policy Sciences, University of Texas, "Definitional Issues in Gang Research"
Gang researchers have failed to reach a consensus on what constitutes a "gang" and a "gang member". Several publications of the last few years have discussed these definitional concerns. Utilizing data from a multi-site evaluation of a gang prevention program, we examine factors associated with gang membership for five increasingly restrictive definitions of gang membership. Logistic regression models test the efficacy of demographic and attitudinal variables in predicting gang membership.
Jodi Lane, James W. Meeker, Dept. Of Criminology, Law and Society, University of California, Irvine, and Bryan J. Vila, Department of Political Science, University of Wyoming, "Fearing Gangs in Orange County, California"
This presentation reports the preliminary descriptive results of the September 1997 Fear of Crime and Gangs Survey conducted in Orange County, California by the U.C.I. Focused Research Group on Orange County Street Gangs and the Orange County Chiefs' and Sheriff's Association. Reported results will include the level of fear in the community about specific criminal offenses, including both gang-related (graffiti, home-invasion robbery, drive-by shooting) and non-gang related crime (e.g., burglary and rape). In addition, we will report the general differences among demographic categories such as age, gender, and race.
Brandi Woods and Dana C. Lynskey, New Mexico State University, "When Is a Family a Family?: Familial Factors Influencing Gang Membership and Gang Behavior"
This paper looks at different family constellations and the relationship between family groupings and both youth gang membership and gang-related misconduct. This paper examines self-reported delinquency and gang affiliation are examined from a national sample of 5,935 eighth grade students in 42 schools located in 11 U.S. cities. The sample contains sizable clusters of ethnic and racial minorities, including AsianAmericans, AfricanAmericans, and HispanicAmericans. Data were collected during the National Evaluation of the Gang Resistance Education and Training (G.R.E.A.T.) program. The implications of multiple recastings of the concept of family for criminological theory and criminal justice practices will be explored in this paper.
Session #8 - SUBSTANCE ABUSE
Sam Torres, Long Beach State University, "The Initial Interview and the Substance Abusing Offender"
This article describes the importance of the initial interview with the substance-abusing offender. A responsibility, anti-disease model forms the philosophical basis for the particular approach, which also requires a credible drug testing program. The effectiveness of coerced treatment was previously discussed and it was argued that if coercion were to be effective, the probation officer must be seen as credible. The factors impacting on officer credibility were described. Probation Officer styles were considered and it was concluded that the law-enforcer, make-him-do-it style is more likely to be effective in deterring drug use and reducing new criminal conduct. The prevalence of severe deficiencies in substance abusers was presented to illustrate that those offenders tend to require the directive and stern approach characterized by the above styles. Considerable detail was provided in structuring the substance-abusing offender during the initial interview. This writer encourages others who supervise substance-abusing offenders to embrace a "fair but firm" approach in holding offenders accountable for their decision to continue using drugs.
Louis M. Holscher, and, Gregorio Mora-Torres, Mexican American Studies Department, San Jose State University, "Contrabando, Traiccion y Corrupcion: Drugs and Crime Themes in Mexican and Chicano Popular Music"
This paper analyzes recent popular songs in Mexico and the United States sung in Spanish that portray, and some would argue glorify, the exploits of drug traffickers and other criminals. It includes a brief historical overview of this phenomenon, and places these songs within the larger tradition of Mexican and Chicano popular music (often corridos) that describe and provide comment on current events, social and political issues, and famous/infamous individuals. The paper concludes with a discussion of the societal response to songs about drugs and crime, and their potential impact on young people and society in general.
Lesley Blacher, "Control Theory and the Impact of Ethnicity on Adolescent Delinquency and Substance Use"
Many studies have used social control theory to explain adolescent involvement in gang membership, delinquency and substance use. However, there has been little research on variations in these behaviors due to racial or ethnic differences and only a few studies have compared Asian Americans to other minorities. This study focuses on ethnic differences in gang membership, delinquency and substance use in a sample of 8th graders from Torrance, California. The sample was drawn from four middle schools that were participating in the Gang Resistance Education and Training program. The purpose of this paper is to examine the ability of control theory to explain what factors are correlated with adolescent delinquency, substance use, and gang membership. Results of this study indicate that social control factors are useful in explaining delinquency among white and hispanic youth, but only peer delinquency is related to delinquent involvement by Asians. For predicting substance use, school commitment and delinquency are important factors for whites and hispanics. The model is quite different for Asians, with gang membership, peer delinquency, cultural identity, and paternal attachment being significant. Thus it appears that control theory does not provide one general model that can be applied to all youth without regard to ethnicity.
Marilyn Brown, Sociology Program, University of Hawaii, "Youth with Alcohol-Related Birth Defects and Juvenile Justice: A Public Health Approach to Delinquency Prevention"
What contributions might public health approaches bring to issues typically dealt with by the criminal justice system? An emerging issue in justice systems is the role of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and other Alcohol Related Birth Defects (ARBDs) in propelling affected youth into conflict with the law. ARBDs coupled with parental abuse, neglect, and other deficits associated with substance abuse in families may produce an array of cognitive deficits, learning disabilities, and conduct problems which place the affected youth at great risk for committing crimes. This paper examines how public health approaches such as primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention become critical in addressing these conditions and in limiting secondary disabilities. Data from Hawaii are examined along with impressions from families, courts, and other stakeholders about the relationship between FAS (and other ARBDs) and youth delinquency. This discussion stresses the importance of early identification of ARBDs and interventions to limit secondary disabilities such as involvement with the juvenile justice system.
Session #9 - THERAPEUTIC JURISPRUDENCE
David Wexler "An Introduction to Therapeutic Jurisprudence"
Therapeutic jurisprudence is a perspective that views the law itself (rules, procedures, and the roles of legal actors) as a social force with potential therapeutic or antitherapeutic consequences. It
is an interdisciplinary approach that tries to bring insights from the clinical behavioral sciences into the shaping of the law. Therapeutic jurisprudence is not limited in its application to mental health law or to criminal law, but is instead a therapeutic perspective on the law in general. Nonetheless, for purposes of a conference on criminology, this paper looks at therapeutic jurisprudence applications in criminal and juvenile law-- such as how courts can increase compliance with conditions of probation, how they can decrease the cognitive distortions of offenders, and how teen courts can be slightly restructured so that empathy can be fostered.
Leonore Simon, Washington State University Vancouver, "How a Specialized Domestic Violence Court can be Used to Achieve Therapeutic Interventions in the Lives of Children of Violent Parents"
The schema of therapeutic jurisprudence suggests that the legal system and its actors can be used to achieve therapeutic goals. The restorative justice model encourages alternative dispute resolutions that simultaneously serve the needs of the victim, the offender, and the community. This paper will explore how these two models can be applied in a specialized domestic violence court to achieve therapeutic intervention in the lives of the children of violent parents.
Thomas J. Scheff, Professor Emeritus, University of California ,Santa Barbara, "Community Conferences for Crime Control: Informal Alternatives to Formal Justice"
This paper examines some of strengths and limitations of formal legal procedures of crime control by comparing them with an alternative. Community conferences deal with confessed crimes by assembling a group of interested parties, and a professional facilitator. This group settles on reparative actions that the offender must take.
The most important difference however, involves the emotional and relational processes that are present in the alternative and absent in formal proceedings.
Peggy Fulton Hora, Municipal Court, Hayward, California, "Therapeutic Jurisprudence and Judging, with Special Reference to Drug Courts"
This presentation will discuss the use of the therapeutic jurisprudence and restorative justice perspective in the day-to-day work of judging. Various examples will be given, but a focus will be placed on the use of the perspectives by judges serving in drug courts.
Bruce J. Winick, University of Miami Law School, "New Directions in Sex Offender Laws: Legal Barriers to Rehabilitation and Redemption"
The 1990s have seen two important new developments in the legal response to sex offenders: the Violent Sexual Predator Act and community registration and notification laws (Megan's Law). Both approaches pose anti-therapeutic consequences for offenders that would seem to seriously diminish the potential for rehabilitation and redemption. This paper will analyze those consequences and make suggestions concerning how these laws can be applied so as to increase the potential for restorative justice.
Session #10 School Based Delinquency Prevention and Intervention
Francine Williams, Chris Boyd and Mary Jo Houseman,San Diego City Schools
Student Attendance Review Board (SARB)
SARB addresses chronic attendance and truancy problems. The Board offers students a last chance to improve attendance before a referral is made to juvenile court. When the school has exhausted all resources to assist a student and his/her family to improve attendance, and improvement does not occur, the family is referred to a SARB hearing. At a SARB hearing, the student and family meet with panel members to develop a legally binding plan to improve school attendance. Panel members include: the school site district counselor, the SARB coordinator, the school probation officer, a medical doctor, a San Diego police officer, a department of social service representative, a guidance assistant case worker, and a community agency representative.
The SARB plan includes: case management, home visits by the case manager, visits with the student at school, working with probation, law enforcement, and the Department of Social Services, connecting families with agencies for counseling, tutoring, and other services, honoring improved attendance, mediation, collaborating with schools and district counselors, recommending placement, initiating subpoenas, citations, and court petitions. SARB establishes significant relationships within the community and with agencies to support families and students. The process is supportive, with punitive consequences given only as the last resort. The panel has the authority to recommend a citation to court or a referral to the Department of Probation. If the plan/contract is not followed and attendance does not improve, the families may be cited to appear in the San Diego County Juvenile Courts. A judge orders compliance with the compulsory attendance law, and may incarcerate or fine the parents. Students may lose their license to drive a car.
The larger issue concerns students not receiving an education in order to become productive, contributing members of society. There is a direct correlation between poor school attendance and the increased likelihood of participation in criminal behavior. The question we ask, if the student is not in school what are they doing ?? San Diego's anti-loitering law has given "teeth" to the education code on attendance which means students can be detained and arrested for not being in school. For further information please contact Mary Jo Housman, SARB Coordinator at 619-490-8676.
Parent Patrol - contact Christina L. Boyd, Resource District Counselor, 619-490-8670
Parents are trained at school sites in conjunction with the San Diego Police Department and San Diego City School Police to ensure safe passage for children to and from school. Parent Patrols were established at elementary and secondary schools. Parents are trained to use walkie-talkies and dress in orange vests. They become the eyes and ears of law enforcement to bring in their assistance when needed. Training is given in almost every language spoken by parents. The diversity of parent patrol assists in fostering relationships between ethnic groups represented in the school population, is low cost, ensures children travel safely to and from school in a large urban district, involves parents in non-traditional ways, and fosters collaboration between parents, law enforcement and the schools. Parents receive recognition on an on-going basis for every 5-10 hours they work. Recognition includes special coffee mugs, T-shirts, jackets, fanny packs, etc.
Session #11 - MEDIA AND THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM
Amy Bronswick, California School of Professional Psychology, "The Portrayal of Serial killers in Film: Perception vs. Reality"
This research examines the representation of serial killer characters in film. Demographic information regarding serial killer characters is compared with the known information about actual serial killers. The implications of such portrayals of serial killer characters on actual perceptions of serial killers is discussed. The glamorization of serial killers in media is also addressed.
Valerie J. Callanan, Sociology, University of California, Riverside, "The Effects of Crime-Related Media on Social Integration, Perception of Vulnerability, and Fear of Crime"
Past studies focusing on the media and fear of crime have suffered from a number of methodological problems. Some studies use only a single-item indicator to measure fear of crime, most only use hours of television watched instead of specific content to measure media exposure, and others have excluded many antecedent variables known to influence fear of crime. Using a random sample of 1852 households in four Southern California counties interviewed in 1992, this paper examines the relationship between content specific crime-related media in three models that employ multiple indicator measures of fear of crime, perceptions of vulnerability to crime, and social integration of respondents to their local communities, while controlling for the effects of socio-demographic variables, children in the home, crime security precautions, length of residence, prior victimization, and neighborhood levels of official crime. Results show that crime-related media do not effect feelings of social integration. However, increases in exposure to crime-related media increase fear of crime, and paradoxically, reduce feelings of vulnerability to harm from physical victimization.
H. Michael Dolny, Center for Criminal Justice Research, California State University, San Bernardino, "The Vengeful Victim: Media Images of Secondary Victims"
Media outlets shape crime coverage by selecting who constitutes a sympathetic victim. This paper focuses on gender differences in media coverage of secondary victims. It is hypothesized that men receive more positive coverage as secondary victims and moral entrepreneurs, in part because of the cultural acceptance of their desire to seek vengeance. This paper will also analyze media coverage of a secondary victim (or support group) who does not seek vengeance.
Ronald Burns, Criminal Justice, Texas Christian University, "Assessing Media Influence on Public Perception of Workplace Violence"
The literature suggests that
public perception of workplace violence largely involves employee vs.
employee/employer confrontations. Yet, the data suggest that such
confrontations constitute only a small percentage of workplace
violence. The present research analyzes newspaper coverage of
workplace violence in an attempt to observe the media's influence in
constructing the public's misconception. Prominent among the research
questions addressed is whether newspaper coverage of such events
adequately portrays the workplace violence data.
Session #12 - JUSTICE AND INJUSTICE
Steven G. Brandl, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, "The Relationship Between Patrol Officers' Background Characteristics and Citizens' Complaints About Excessive Force"
This paper tests hypotheses that link patrol officers' background characteristics and use of excessive force. Excessive force is measured through citizen complaints. The data were collected from a large Midwestern police department. The implications of the findings are discussed.
Julius Debro & Darlene Conley, University of Washington, "Self Reports: Deliquency and Drugs in a Black Cohort"
For nearly 40 years we have reviewed self reports (Short & Nye,1957). In most reviews we have concluded that African Americans, especially those from the lower class, have been disproportionately arrested and convicted because of police and/or court bias. Some studies have indicated that there is no bias, that African Americans commit more serious crimes. Thus, their arrest rates are a true indicator of their criminality. Other studies have indicated that bias does exist and that those biases are exemplified by the race and ethnicity of controllers within the criminal justice system. Some say that with white police officers, white jailers, white judges, white probation officers, one would expect this in a racist system. We postulate that self reports are in themselves racist and that measures of reliability, validity and standardization are missing from a review of works in this area. Self reports generally are only validated against official reports of delinquency, thus making them more suspect.
Rick Lovell, Carl E. Pope, and, Stan Stojkovic, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, "Race and Juvenile Justice Decision-Making: A Case Study"
This paper examines the processing of juvenile offenders over a three-year period in a major mid-western city. The central question addressed here is the extent to which race/ethnicity affects decision-making within a specific juvenile justice system. A central issue facing the justice system, and one that has received much attention over the past ten years, is the degree to which outcomes may be influenced by race or ethnicity. The methodology includes the analysis of case records on approximately 24,000 youth and focus group discussions with key decision makers. As opposed to many previous studies, the results here revealed that while minority youth were over represented at various stages of juvenile processing, differences were not primarily due to race alone. These findings are probably a result of the unique way in which youth are processed and the impact of prior economic, social, and political conditions.
Session #13 - JUVENILE JUSTICE
Dae-Gyung Kwack, University of Hawaii, "The Relationships Between Social Class and Juvenile Delinquency in Hawaii Intermediate School Youth"
Most of the major delinquency theories are based on strong and inverse relationships between social class and delinquency. In other words, many delinquency theories assume that lower-class people are more likely to commit delinquent behaviors than higher-class people. However this popular assumption is not always supported by empirical evidence. Specifically, many self-reported delinquency studies have questioned the validity of the negative class/delinquency association. According to a literature review of this topic, inadequate and poor measurement of social class and delinquency is partially responsible for the inconsistent findings among various empirical studies regarding the class/delinquency relationship. Thus, the present study attempts to identify specific delinquent offenses which show significant class differences through improved measurement of social class and delinquent behaviors. In this study, both father's and mother's jobs are utilized to define family social class; unemployed people are included as lower-class people. Also, delinquent behaviors are classified into serious/trivial offenses. They are divided into violent offense, property offense, non-law violation misconduct, and drug offense using PAGE (Positive Alternative Gang Education) program evaluation data from Hawaiian intermediate school youth. The relationship between social class and delinquency is examined.
Analysis of the data reveals that eighteen out of nineteen delinquent behavior items show negative gamma values, which imply the inverse class/delinquency relationship. Statistically significant class differences are more likely to be found in serious violent offenses and misconduct behaviors than trivial property and drug offenses. Thus, it is concluded that social class makes a difference in youths delinquent behaviors and that the inverse class/delinquency relationship is supported.
Session #14 - CRIME PREVENTION
Bryan Vila, University of Wyoming, and, Joanne Savage, University of California Irvine, "Nurturance and Crime Prevention: An International Perspective"
Much criminological theory predicts that the volume of criminally predisposed individuals in a society is a function of the amount of nurturance that society provides its children. This paper extends prior work that showed an inverse relation between crime rates and measures of child nurturance across an international perspective.
Terry Whin-Yates, School of Criminology, Simon Fraser University, "Geographic Crime Analysis: Policy Implications for Mass Transit"
British Columbia Transit is planning a massive increase in capacity utilizing light rail and dedicated-road bus lines. Recent research in Vancouver, Chicago, New York, Baltimore, and elsewhere has shown that transit lines have a strong influence on the total distribution of crime in a city. This paper explores the utility of geographic crime analysis utilizing computer based Geographical Iinformation System as a basis for developing crime prevention policy in a large transit agency during an expansion phase.
Hong Lu, School of Justice Studies, Arizona State University, "Crime Prevention and Neighborhood Organizations in Shanghai"
This paper examines crime prevention strategies employed in a Shanghai neighborhood community during the period of socioeconomic and legal transformation. These strategies are elaborated in the context of community organizations. It is argued that effective community organization and mobilization of residents are key to effective community crime prevention, and vice versa. Analyses are based on data gathered from a three month fieldwork in the neighborhood community. The data sources include existing records in the residence committee, interviews with key players in community crime prevention, and participant observation in the residence committee's office.
Session #15 - FAMILY CONFERENCING
Ogbonnaya Oko Elechi, Simon Fraser University, "Doing Justice without the State: The Afikpo-Nigeria Model"
The study examines the significance of Afikpo of South-East Nigeria's conflict resolution model as an alternative system of justice in Nigeria. The Afikpo model is rooted in cultural tradition. The study therefore examines the indigenous social and political institutions that function as channels for conflict resolution, deviant control, and social dynamics of justice. The study further explores the model's continued perceived popularity and legitimacy, and the basis of the system's co-existence with the Nigerian State agencies for conflict resolution.
In this study, an attempt will be made to explore the Afikpo Community's concept of justice and the nature of the adjudication processes they employ. Comparisons of the community's perception of the strengths and weaknesses, and areas of difficulty of the State Criminal Justice Institutions and the Community based systems of conflict resolution shall be undertaken. It is suggested that the co-existence of Christian and Moslem communities, demographic changes, and economic factors present challenges to the model that need to be examined. This study is grounded in the theories of restorative justice and other concepts of African justice (Zehr 1990 ,1994; Christie 1976; Uchendu 1965). Inquiries into state, state/society, and postcolonial state theories will be undertaken to further illuminate this phenomenon of an alternative conflict resolution model. As an exploratory study, several qualitative research methods shall be utilized. They include participant observation, oral history, in-person, and focus group interviews.
Leticia Solorzano, Undergraduate, University of California, Irvine "An Examination of the Juvenile Justice System in Costa Rica"
In the United States, juvenile courts have come a long way since the turn of the century. They have been transformed from informal forums on children into formal courts of law where the focus is more on providing juveniles most of the procedural protections available to adults. This fact, however, has caused much debate in the last decade about whether juvenile courts should even exist.While the United States is in the midst of this debate, Costa Rica is trying to create a more formal juvenile court. This research project is an examination of Costa Rica's juvenile justice system against the backdrop of that of the United States. It will examine in detail a new law, "La Ley de Justicia Penal Juvenil," enacted in 1996, which has changed the face of the Costa Rican Juvenile Court. Consequently, it has caused much uproar amid the public, politicians, and especially among professionals working within the Justice System. This law allows Costa Rica to create a more defined juvenile court, parallel to that of the United States as established by the 1967 Gault decision. The information acquired in this study was compiled by way of interviews and unobtrusive interviews done in Costa Rica, and also includes a literature review. Planned analyses will address public opinion as well as questions regarding rising delinquency, alternative sanctions, institutionalization, the role of the church and the police, and the determinant role that these factors have played in changing Costa Rica's "small town mentality" regarding the juvenile justice system.
Session #17 - PREDATION AND CRIME
D. Kim Rossmo, Simon Fraser University, Canada, "Criminal Predators, Victims, And Mean Streets"
The search for victims by criminal predators resembles the hunt for prey by wild animals. One important difference is environment. Criminal behavior is constrained by the human landscape and society's routine activities. Because the method and style of hunting affects the spatial distribution of crime, it is necessary to consider the combined influence of offender, victim, and the surrounding physical/temporal environment on the geography of crime. These issues are important for both researchers and practitioners. Environmental criminology supplies a framework for such an analysis.
Paul J. Brantingham, Patricia L. Brantingham, Simon Fraser University, and P. Jeffrey Brantingham, University of Arizona, "Utilizing Biometric Behavior Models to Understand and Control Criminal Behavior"
Models of foraging, vigilance and cheating behavior derived from biological, archaeological, and anthropological field studies are combined with concepts from the geometry of crime and utilized to propose criminal behavior and crime prevention strategies.
Stefanie Petrucci, University of California, Davis/California State University, Fresno, "A Typology of Serial Sexual Killer Victim Acquisition Techniques"
The purposes of this study are to create a typology of victim acquisition techniques used by 146 serial sexual killers and to describe the typology numerically to provide support for the concept of psychological stalking. The victim acquisition technique typology was created by researching data files of individual offenders. Standardized questions were created and asked of each offender. Four patterns were discovered including luring (25.3%), abducting (35.6%), attacking (16.4%), and use of a combination of methods (22.6%). Most offenders consistently used one form of victim acquisition throughout their crimes, thus providing support for psychological stalking.
Session #18 - LAW ENFORCEMENT
Peter Kassebaum, College of Marin, "Cultural Diversity: Institutional Resistance and Acceptance"
The presentation will focus upon some of the key elements that went into the construction of a manual for teaching cultural diversity to a police department as well as the reactions from department members during the time period when the unit was prepared and completed. The author of the unit is the only full-time social anthropologist who has engaged in participant observation by becoming a police officer to study the subculture of policing since 1979. The manual used the preliminary POST guidelines as a starting point for development of the unit. At that time the, POST had not fleshed out the content but had a series of objectives that it had identified as being important. The author has an almost three decades long set of academic experiences teaching cultural anthropology and sociology. The author utilized this background to give more substance to the POST outline, and then drew upon data from learning theory to complete a self-testing instrument which measured an individual officer's mastery of the unit. The unit was developed at the direction of the Chief of Police, who mandated that all the officers and dispatchers should go through the training. Three managers chose to opt out of participation. Students were not allowed to miss any questions, and were told to fix what they left blank or what was marked incorrectly. All complied. However, the unit had its positive and negative impacts, in that the author of the unit who had been accepted for his role as a police officer was now redefined and labeled as an academic and a liberal within a closed society. This resulted in a redefinition of master status for a period, and changed the relationship between the author and some members of the department. The unit has now been refined and is ready for additional field testing in California, with the need for some degree of localization of content for a specific region.
Session #19 - CORRECTIONS
David Taylor, Department of Criminology, Law and Society, University of California, Irvine, "Work Values and Experiences of Ex-Felons"
This paper examines the work values and work experiences of convicted felons recently released from prison. Drawing on in-depth qualitative interviews, the role of work in their lives is explored, including their goals and aspirations, in an attempt to qualitatively explore work. Findings from the interviews reveal scattered and erratic work histories, trying relationships with immediate supervisors, and inabilities to fulfill their work aspirations. Analysis also reveals, however, that although work is a very difficult part of the lives of these offenders, it is also a very important part of their lives. Interviews suggest that work is a multifaceted concept, so as more than just a wage. Results offer an alternative view of work in the lives of convicted felons. Studies that examine the relationship between employment and crime should expand the notion of work to include the amount and nature of work, wages, work conditions, amount of autonomy, and other contextual factors related to the work experience so as to reveal the complexities of the employment variable. This information is important in understanding the value of employment as a means for successful offenders' reintegration into society. One suggestion is to provide access to resources to find jobs that match their interests and skills.
Chuck Terry, University of California, Irvine, "Living with Change: Transcending Prisonization and Addiction"
Preliminary findings will be presented from a study of male ex-heroin addicts, all of whom have extensive histories of imprisonment. The focus will be on the way these men see themselves and others in the world, the way that has changed over time, and the difficulties they have gone through to get where they are today.
Marie L. Griffin, Arizona State University - West, and, John R. Hepburn, Arizona State University, "Recidivism Following Confinement in a County Jail"
Recidivism studies tend to focus on offenders incarcerated in state or federal prisons, offenders placed on probation, specialized offender populations and those offenders who participate in specialized treatment or surveillance programs. Little is known about the rate and predictors of recidivism among those offenders who are sentenced to jail. To address this void, we identified all offenders sentenced to the Maricopa County, Arizona jail who were released during the first quarter of 1989, 1990, 1994 and 1995. Official records were used to measure recidivism , defined as any rearrest, during the 30 months immediately following release. This study of over 4,000 offenders examines the rate of recidivism and the effects of age, race, gender, prior record, offense type, probation supervision, and changing community conditions on the likelihood of recidivism. The results are discussed in terms of recidivism among other offender populations.
David Simon, "White Collar Deviance: The Untested Dimensions"
This paper briefly describes the new definition of white-collar crime adopted by the United States Department of Justice White-Collar Crime Research Center (1996), and then proceeds to hypothesize about the new definition. implications. Following the paradigm described by C. Wright Mills in The Sociological Imagination and other works, the paper discusses causal variables of white-collar deviance at three levels of analysis: macro (values and institutional structures), immediate milieu (the organizational environment) and individual (dimensions of social character). Testable hypotheses concerning causation at each level are described.
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