Volume 2, Issue 1, June 1999
ISSN 1096-4886 http://www.westerncriminology.org/Western_Criminology_Review.htm
WESTERN SOCIETY OF CRIMINOLOGY
(Follow the highlighted panel number to return to the respective proceedings panel.--Ed.)
PANEL 1: LAW AND
Aaron Dalton, and Hiroshi Fukurai, Sociology, UC, Santa Cruz. Affirmative Action Strategies in Jury Selection: Affirmative Jury Structures and Affirmative Peremptory Inclusion Create Racially Mixed Juries.
This article examines possible applications
of two affirmative action strategies in jury selection - affirmative
jury structures and affirmative peremptory inclusion, in order to
create racially mixed juries. We contend that with the use of an
affirmative jury structure such as de medietate linguae jury,
the Hennepin jury, and social science models, the court can
effectively design three specific forms of racially mixed tribunals
by requiring varying mandatory racial quotas. With the use of
experimental data collected from a small group of undergraduate
students at UC Santa Cruz, the paper empirically investigates the
feasibility of affirmative action strategies in jury selection. The
affirmative mechanism to secure racially-representative and
racially-heterogeneous juries is essential to both the appearance and
substance of fairness and justice in criminal jury proceedings and
because maximizing the essence of trial fairness and verdict
legitimacy is a compelling judicial and governmental interest.
Scott Senjo, Dept. of Criminal Justice, CSU, Bakersfield. The Power of the Bench Amid the Dilemma of Drugs and Crime.
The judge's role in the specialized drug
court provides the criminal justice system an opportunity to address
the problem of drugs and crime. Working within the
ameliorative-therapeutic model of criminal case processing, the drug
court judge is found to develop an unusually close relationship with
offenders in the program and channel the power of the bench to assist
offenders in their drug treatment. In an effort to quantify the main
features of the judge's role, systematic research was conducted to
define and measure the impact a drug court judge can have on
promoting offenders to change themselves and commence a life free of
drugs and crime. This study indicates that the role of drug court
judge includes significant potential to address a difficult set of
criminal justice circumstances.
Jeanette Sereno and Cecil Rhodes, Dept. of Sociology and Criminal Justice, CSU, Stanislaus. Tinkering with the Machinery of Death: The Supreme Court's Failed Experiment with the Death Penalty.
Prior to the 1960s the U.S. Supreme Court
had little to do with the constitutionality of the death penalty. Its
premise was, essentially, that State sanctioned executions of
lawfully convicted individuals were neither cruel nor unusual and,
thus, were constitutionally permissible. During the 1960s, with
events surrounding the execution of Caryl Chessman, other social
events such as the American Law Institute's published condemnation of
capital punishment, the civil rights struggle, a moratorium on
executions, and changes in the Court, the constitutionality of
capital punishment was once again examined. Since Furman
(1972), the arbitrariness, discrimination, capriciousness,
inconsistencies and errors have returned. The dictates of
Furman and Gregg for that matter have long become
eroded by a death qualified court. In Callins v. Collins
(1994) Justice Blackmun stated that "from this day forward he would
'no longer tinker with the machinery of death.'" This paper analyzes
Blackmun's position in Callins v. Collins and provides a
sequential legal and common sense explanation of why the Court's
experiment with capital punishment has failed.
Stefanie Petrucci, UC, Davis, King Hall School of Law. The Impact of the Terhune Decision on the Commitment of Mentally Ill Offenders.
The California Supreme Court recently handed
down the Terhune decision, which had the effect of releasing
certain offenders from prison. These inmates fulfilled determinate
sentences and were held in custody pending sexual predator commitment
proceedings. As a result of the court order, ninety-three inmates
were released on September 4, 1998. Twelve hours after being freed
from custody, one offender, wearing only a tracking device on his
ankle, raped an elderly woman in her hotel room. This presentation
discusses the Terhune decision and the California Supreme
Court's rationale as well as the avenues available for the commitment
of mentally ill offenders. The Lanterman-Petris-Short Act and the
Sexually Violent Predator Act are also discussed. Finally, the role
of the Board of Prison Terms in evaluating mental status is
Patricia Zajac, Dept. of Criminal Justice Administration, CSU, Hayward. Effectiveness of Physical Evidence in Criminal Investigations.
Forensic science and the utilization of
physical evidence in criminal investigations have received
considerable media coverage of late, particularly since the O. J.
Simpson trials. Additionally, there have been revelations that
physical evidence, especially DNA evidence, has exonerated suspects,
even after convictions and long prison sentences that were based on
traditional testimonial and physical evidence. The question
considered here is how effective physical evidence is in criminal
investigations and prosecutions.
Matthew Petrocelli, Dept. of Criminal Justice Administration, CSU, Hayward. Community Policing Effectiveness: Sergeants' Perspectives.
Although touted as the latest, greatest
innovation in law enforcement, community policing has met with mixed
reviews by practitioners. This paper qualitatively analyzes the
effectiveness of community policing through the views of police
supervisors. The findings are discussed in terms of their theoretical
and policy implications.
Stephanie Amedeo-Marquez, Dept. of Criminal Justice Administration, CSU, Hayward. Outcomes-Based Evaluation of Judicial Discretion.
Sentencing can be seen as an outcome of
judicial discretion. This paper discusses the effectiveness of the
criminal justice system in terms of the sentencing process, with
length of sentence as an outcome measure.
Mark Neithercutt and Ben Carmichael, Dept. of Criminal Justice Administration, CSU, Hayward. Sixteen-Year Follow Up of Felony Probationers.
The question of how well offenders perform
after "treatment" gets various answers. This sixteen-year follow-up
of felony probationers gives the question a slightly different
Mikki E. Jones, College of Urban and Public Affairs, Portland State University. The Challenges of Restorative Justice.
There are two major orientations to making
moral choices: rights/justice, which views morality being tied
to respect for rules and justice being administered by a retributive
system; and care/response, which sees morality as a contextual
network of interpersonal relationships. Restorative justice attempts
to create a new balance between these orientations. As well-meaning
as this balance may be, it usually involves close alignment with, and
sometimes almost complete domination by, and oppressive criminal
justice system. One of the most important challenges for restorative
justice, then, is to develop its potential standing as far away as
possible from institutions that have grown within the rights/justice
orientation. Ways to accomplish this are discussed.
Penn Weldon, College of Urban and Public Affairs, Portland State University. The Language of Restorative Justice.
The criminal justice system in the United
States has had a history of using language and definitions that fail
to recognize the depth and complexity of human interactions. This
presentations explores this failure through personal experiences and
other examples, with the intent of revealing that depth and the need
for alternative avenues of justice. Restorative justice concepts are
trying to break the confines of criminal justice rhetoric, giving
"victims" and "offenders" greater access to an inclusive language of
expression, while building community with responsibility. This is an
attempt to add my voice to the gathering pool of information on
restorative justice and to chip away at the divisive nature of our
criminal justice system.
Charles Tracy, College of Urban and Public Affairs, Portland State University. The Promises of Restorative Justice.
Restorative justice sounds good in theory,
particularly as an alternative to our current retributive justice
system. But like all new and emerging social service programs, there
is an important need to quickly demonstrate just how good it is in
practice and what doesn't work so well. Many of the preliminary
findings from the evaluation of such restorative justice programs as
Victim Offender Mediation and Dialogue, Family Group Conferencing,
and Circle Sentencing are quite encouraging. Data from this research,
including a recent cross-national study, is presented with examples
of some of the more promising programs.
Michael Day, College of Urban and Public Affairs, Portland State University. South Africa's Experience with Restorative Justice.
South Africa has just completed an
interesting and valuable experience closely related to restorative
justice concepts. Parts of this experience may have useful
application to the restorative movement in the United States,
particularly in the areas of reaching out to victims, reparation to
victims, community-based justice, and criminal justice system
accountability. The activities and results of South Africa's Truth
and Reconciliation Commission and the operation of the Centre for the
Study of Violence and Reconciliation is discussed.
Chris Eskridge, University of Nebraska, Omaha. Thinking About Crime Rates: The Rise and Fall of UCR Figures.
Despite predictions of a downturn, aggregate
UCR rates turned upward in the mid-1980s and reached an apex in 1991.
The recently released 1997 figures marked the sixth year that those
figures have fallen, with the crime rate now at a 25 year low. This
paper explores possible reasons for these fluctuations. An aggregate
correlation analysis examining crime rates and a number of social
statistics is undertaken in an attempt to better understand this
Christine Way, Center for Applied Social Analysis and Education, CSU Humboldt. Is Supervision Enough? A Look at Service Adequacy and the Reduction of Juvenile Crime in Humboldt County.
Using the classic experimental design, the
Center for Applied Social Analysis and Education is evaluating the
effectiveness of the Repeat Offender Prevention Project, a program
designed to reduce recidivism among first time juvenile wards. A
component of this evaluation examines the degree to which receiving
adequate services reduces recidivism among the treatment youth.
Adequacy of services is determined by the degree of fit between the
individual client and services rendered. This entails a three state
process of risk/need assessment, service plan analysis, and service
profiling. While still a work in process, preliminary data suggests
that supervision alone may not be enough.
Horst Senger, Simi Valley, CA, Missing Statistics of Criminology.
Statistics have always played an important
role in all science. Computers seem to have become the leading factor
in all we think and do relating to crime. Law seems to dominate
criminological theorizing and criminal justice practice seems to
leave ever fewer areas of private and public life from being
investigated and prosecuted. Since Beccaria and the birth of modern
criminology, the greatest thinkers about crime warned us about too
many laws over behavior. With more refined and beautifully presented
crime statistics, none are on the laws defining crimes. An example is
the absence of the number of laws the average person has to obey
daily. Also missing are such data as: What is the most violated law,
the one first violated, the most frequent sequence of law violating
by age groups, by locations, by year, etc. Also significant would be
the amount of money spent on passing laws. Criminologists might find
it useful to explore and present data about these and related
Espinosa, Armando, Criminal Justice, CSU, Bakersfield. College Athletes and Crime.
Athletes are often stereotyped as role
models. A role model is considered a positive reinforcement for young
people. In the last few years, a stigma has developed regarding
athletes and their negative influence on society. The
structural-functionalist perspectives as well as the conflict theory
of sports explore these two criterions. The structural-functionalist
theory perceives athletes as a positive image for society.
Furthermore, in order to deter crime, it encourages young kids to
become athletes. On the other hand, conflict theory analyzes the
negative impact that athletes have in society. This paper explores
and compares the two perspectives and how the public reacts to this
issue. Mass media plays a major role in making the public aware of an
athlete's deviant behavior. Although college players are not earning
money, they experience many of the same pressures as a professional
athlete. A college player needs to perform well on the field and in
his studies. Research indicates most athletes are involved in
drinking and other deviant behavior as means to release their
pressure. The paper will also address the collegiate athlete
involvement in this type of behavior and the response of society and
Stephen M. Haas, CSU, Bakersfield. Assessing the Influence of Instigation Mechanisms on High School Aggression.
One of the most powerful and intriguing
aspects of Bandura's social learning theory is its ability to account
for the motivations often necessary for the performance of aggressive
behavior. Social learning theory extends a tradition of
frustration-aggression research and psychological theorizing to
incorporate a diverse set of both aversive and incentive instigators
that contribute to the performance of aggression. This research
utilizes social learning theory as a framework for analyzing the
motivation forces that often precede acts of aggression and violence
in high schools. Using self-report data from 2,041 high school
students in central and southern California, this research examines
the influence of aversive conditions and incentive inducements on
high school aggression. The results suggest a variety of instigation
mechanisms are operating to influence levels of aggression and
violence in high schools. Future directions for research and
implications for program development are discussed.
Thomas K. Pinhey, University of Guam, Michael Perez, CSU, Fullerton, and Randall L. Workman, University of Guam. The Influence of Extracurricular Activities on the Fighting Behavior of Asian-Pacific Youth: Social Integration and Social Control Perspectives Revisited in a Cross-Cultural Context.
Drawing on classic social integrationist and
social control perspectives, we test the hypothesis that
participation in high school extracurricular activities reduces the
fighting behavior of Asian-Pacific youth in Guam. Using ordinary
least squares multiple regression analysis, we test the hypothesis
with a probability sample of Guam's Asian-Pacific high school
students. Controlling for age, ethnicity, gender, and a number of
risk and protective factors, students who participate in
extracurricular activities are less likely than others to participate
in physical fighting, and that extracurricular activities buffer the
effects of males' participation in physical confrontations.
Carmela Lomonaco, Social Science Research Institute, USC. Understanding Juvenile Violence.
A better understanding of the basic
construction of juvenile-involved violence is necessary to develop
more effective policy and prevention programs to combat the
increasing severity of juvenile violence. Valuable information on
juvenile violence patterns may be obtained through exploring the
nature of violence as described by the youth involved. This
presentation reports findings from 60 in-depth interviews conducted
with youth who were violence victims and/or offenders. Incidents that
carry gang, firearm and other weapon characteristics will be
discussed for their similarity or deviation from other types of
violent incidents. In addition, participant characteristics, witness
participation, responsibility/accountability issues and some
decision-making processes experienced by juveniles when confronted
with violence, will be explored.
Frank P. Williams III, Dept. of Criminal Justice, Northern Arizona University. The Simplicity of Criminological Theory: Whatever Happened to the Complexity of Reality?
Criminological theories appear to adhere to
the scientific holy grail: the explanation of as much as possible
with as little as possible. A brief critique is offered of the major
theories by way of a search for reality in crime events. It is argued
that reality is complex and multi-dimensional. A reasonable
explanation of a crime event should have an understanding of
background and foreground factors, be multidisciplinary, and
understand the importance of both objective and subjective factors
present in both action and reaction.
Rex Reed, Division of Classification and Planning, Nevada Dept of Prisons. Marching After Folly: An Analysis of the Drug War Policy.
This paper develops a model of policy
failure called the "Tuchman Cycle." The model highlights one way in
which policy makers stumble when trying to implement and enforce a
selected policy, such as the drug war. The failure begins when policy
makers underestimate the strength of their opponents and continues as
government officials cannot learn enough from their initial failures
to overcome the unsuccessful implementation. The Tuchman Cycle's last
stage is stagnation: the market's quick innovations overcome a
government's bureaucratically instituted policy in such a way that
government officials can learn no effective ways to amend the policy.
Therefore, they bog down in simply repackaging failed policies as new
initiatives. The Tuchman Cycle is one example of when the market wins
over government attempts at regulation.
Claudia E. Lavenant, Craig L. Hayward, and Paul Jesilow University of California, Irvine, Tort Reform and Physician Sanctioning.
State legislatures have passed tort reforms
to hold down medical costs. Such legal modifications are requested by
physicians who have had their bank accounts diminished by rising
malpractice fees. For their part, legislatures have granted the tort
reforms with physicians' promise that the profession would do a
better job of policing their own. The present study examines the
association of the passage of tort reforms with the level of
sanctions levied against physicians. A quasi-experimental design is
employed to determine whether the introduction of tort reforms
affected physician sanctioning. The association of nine tort reforms
with reported levels of physician sanctioning was analyzed across a
ten year span in fifty states and the District of Colombia. The
results indicate an association between the passage of certain tort
reforms and the number of physicians sanctioned. A number of other
competing hypotheses are discussed.
Elizabeth D. Leonard, Vanguard University/Southern California College and Kate Auerhahn, UC Riverside. Docile Women: Psychotropic Drugs and the Female Inmate.
In the past two decades, the proportion of
American citizens under correctional supervision has increased
dramatically, straining criminal justice system resources in a number
of ways. This paper asserts that one response to this strain has been
the use of psychotropic medications on prison and jail inmates as a
means of social control. It has been argued that these drugs are used
with greater frequency on female inmates, relative to their male
counterparts. In this paper, we report evidence supporting this
claim, and offer a theoretical explanation for this practice that
focuses on historical conceptions of women in Western philosophical,
medical, and criminological thought. Finally, data from in-depth
qualitative interviews with forty-two incarcerated women are used to
explore the meaning and consequences of the use of chemical
restraints on female inmates.
David Farabee, Vandana Joshi, and M. Douglas Anglin, Drug Abuse Research Center, UCLA. Criminal and Addiction Careers of DATOS Clients.
For many drug users, the initiation of drug
use and the subsequent transition to an addiction career is
accompanied by criminal activities. However, the use of general crime
and drug use categories often obscures important features of their
relationship. In the present study, data from the national Drug Abuse
Treatment Outcome Study (DATOS) sample of 10,010 clients in substance
abuse treatment were analyzed to explore the relationships between
several addiction career variables and the likelihood of lifetime
participation in victimful, victimless, and non-specialized criminal
behaviors. The order of initiation of addiction and criminal careers
was significantly related to participation in certain types of
crimes, with those beginning criminal careers after beginning their
addiction careers being more likely to engage in victimless than
victimful crimes. Likewise, dependence on cocaine, heroin or both,
relative to alcohol, was associated with greater criminal diversity,
but a reduced likelihood of participating specifically in victimful
Michael Perez, Dept of Sociology, CSU Fullerton, Linkages between Substance Use and Violence: A Research Note on Guam's Youth.
This research note reports preliminary
findings on connections between substance use and violence among
Guam's youth. Based on the literature, we propose positive linkages
between substance use and violence factors. We specifically explore
substance use and violence in terms of reported use of substances,
likelihood of students to use various substances, student sentiments
regarding the contribution of drugs to violence, perceptions of
violence, exposure to violence and engagement in fighting. Utilizing
multiple regression, we analyze data from a sample of Guam's high
school students. This research note proceeds with a brief discussion
of the literature and theory. Preliminary bivariate and multivariate
findings are presented. Implications for subsequent cross-cultural
research, intervention and prevention are also discussed.
Sharon Mihalic, Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence, University of Colorado, What Works in Violence Prevention
Learn what the research literature says
about violence prevention and "what works." The Center for the Study
and Prevention of Violence has identified ten model violence
prevention programs, called Blueprints, which span the infancy
to late adolescence period. These are programs that have met rigorous
scientific criteria for program effectiveness. Core elements of each
of these programs will be discussed. Information will also be
presented on funding opportunities for implementing Blueprints
Darlanne Hoctor Mulmat, Criminal Justice Research Division, San Diego Association of Governments, Delinquency Prevention through Assessment in the Community
Through a Challenge Grant from the
California Board of Corrections, the San Diego County Probation
Department has created interagency Community Assessment Centers to
assess the needs of at-risk youth for delinquency. Following
assessment, services and referrals designed to prevent the youth from
entering the justice system are provided. The project involves
extensive data collection by program staff. This presentation will
provide an overview of the project and preliminary findings.
Cynthia Rienick, Criminal Justice Research Division, San Diego Association of Governments, "At_Risk Juveniles and Families in Need: Identifying Problem Areas and Providing a Continuum of Services"
The Reflections Program is a structured day
center that offers family_focused interventions to high_risk youth
and families in the juvenile justice and dependency systems who are
severely at risk of having one or more children removed from the
home. A multi_disciplinary team of probation officers and therapists,
using a "positive peer culture" model approach, implements
intervention strategies. Since July 1996, over 300 juveniles have
entered Reflections. This presentation will provide an overview of
the program, as well as impact evaluation findings pertaining to
gains in problem areas, as well as criminal activity, drug use, and
out_of_home placement before and after participation.
David Mayeda, Youth
Gang Project, University of Hawaii, Constructing Ethnicity and
Masculinity Within the Confines of Urban Honolulu.
PANEL 8: WOMEN AND
THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM
Sharrell Blakeley, California Dept. of Corrections. Family Foundations.
In May, 1994, CDC was authorized to
construct 3 residential treatment programs for pregnant and parenting
female offenders. Three counties with populations over 450,000 have
been targeted for participation (Los Angeles, San Diego and Fresno).
The program, Family Foundations, servicing approximately 115 eligible
women will provide medical, educational and counseling programs,
individual and family counseling, psychiatric evaluation, vocational
training and parenting classes. The program's unique feature is that
women will enter directly from county jail. The program's mission is
to reduce alcohol and drug use, criminal activity, recidivism, as
well as drug-exposed and low birth weight babies.
Meda Chesney-Lind and Vickie Paramore, Women's Studies, University of Hawaii at Manoa. Contextualizing Girls Violence: An Inquiry into Female Juvenile Robbery.
Given the upward trend in girls' arrests for violent offenses, there is clear need to investigate the shifts in arrest patterns. Hawaii, like other states, has seen an increase in girl's "share" of robbery arrests, as well as a dramatic increase in the arrests of youth for this offense. As an example, between 1994 and 1996, the number of youth arrested for robbery in Hawaii doubled, and the proportion of robbery arrests accounted for by girls jumped from 13% to 18%.
This paper presents preliminary data on the
meaning of these shifts by examining details on juvenile robbery
arrests in two time periods, 1991 and 1997. Data will be presented to
explore the dimensions of juvenile robbery during the two time
periods including exploration of arrestee characteristics, victim
characteristics, and robbery characteristics (e.g. weapon use, items
taken setting). Results indicate that shifts in reporting rather than
changes in girls' or boys' behavior may account for most of the
increase in juvenile robbery arrests in Honolulu.
Angel Ilarraza Fuentes, Dept. Of Sociology, Texas Christian University and Cdr Julia A. Stokes, Federal Bureau of Prisons, Carswell. Sharing Hope About Recovery Experiences: Women Inside Helping Girls Outside.
In 1996, various administrative staff at the
Federal Bureau of Prisons: Federal Medical Center, Carswell (Fort
Worth, Texas) met to explore the development of a community outreach
program. The outcome of the meeting was the "Sharing Hope About
Recovery Experiences" (SHARE) project. Today, SHARE is recognized as
a valuable programmatic and rehabilitative component among members of
the inmate population at FMC. Additionally, the SHARE project has
positively influenced the lives of many female teenagers who were "at
risk" for subsequent criminality. This paper will describe the SHARE
project and discuss some of the issues surrounding the success of the
project as an outreach program that originates, (and predominantly
operates) from within the confines of a federal prison for women.
Barbara Owen, Dept. of Criminology, CSU Fresno. Women and Imprisonment in the United States: The General Consequences of the U.S. Imprisonment Binge.
In the last twenty-five years, the number of
women imprisoned in the United States has increased rapidly with the
rate of growth in women's imprisonment far outpacing that of men's
imprisonment. As the U.S. continues its imprisonment binge, a
remarkable gender based difference in the rate of this increase must
be explained. The "so-called Îwar on drugs' and related changes
in legislation, law enforcement practices and judicial decision
making" has fueled this dramatic increase in the punishment and
incarceration of women. This paper looks at actual crime and arrests,
the patriarchal structure of the social control system and the
decreasing economic opportunities available to women, including
changes in the public welfare system. Pains of imprisonment and
program needs are also outlined.
Nancy LaVigne, Director, Crime Mapping Research Center, NIJ, Washington, DC. Spatial Analyses of Crime and Criminal Behavior: An Overview of Current Research Applications.
This paper gives an overview of the work of
the Crime Mapping Research Center at the National Institute of
Justice and provides a summary of some current research applications
of geographic information systems in criminal justice.
D. Kim Rossmo, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada. Clues in Crime Maps: The Manhattan East Side Rapist.
Geographic crime patterns are clues that,
when properly decoded, can be used to point in the direction of the
offender. This paper will discuss serial rape in Manhattan generally,
and then examine in detail the crime patterns of the Upper East Side
serial rapist, responsible for at least 17 victims. This offender has
exhibited a consistent hunting method, resulting in an interpretable
pattern of crime locations. Crime maps, local area knowledge,
environmental criminology theory, and geographic profiling were all
used to develop investigative strategies for the NYPD.
Krista Joyner, GIS Analyst, Valley Professional Services, Chico, CA. Monitoring 290s: Using GIS to Demonstrate Limitations of Megan's Law in California.
Megan's Law is becoming increasingly
familiar to a variety of individuals in a society demanding better
tools with which to protect themselves and their children against
serious violent sexual predators. Although the driving force behind
Megan's Law is one of good intentions, there are many issues that
make proactive public disclosures somewhat unreasonable for law
enforcement agencies to perform with any degree of accuracy and/or
consistency. This research uses innovative geographic information
systems technology to explore the demographic nature of a small
community, its sex offenders, and some limitations of Megan's Law
legislation in the state of California.
Patricia Brantingham and Paul Brantingham, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada. The Role of Theory in Crime Mapping.
Modern GIS systems for personal computers
have made automated pin mapping a straightforward task for many
police departments. Improved crime analysis techniques will require
greater use of criminological theory. Use of theories drawn from
environmental criminology for informed crime analysis is illustrated
using Vancouver calls for service data.
Terry Whin-Yates, Simon Fraser University, Beyond Pin Maps: Using GIS to Map Crime Attractors and Crime Generators.
Crime attractors are activity nodes to which
people travel for the purpose of committing some specific crime.
Crime generators are high volume activity nodes at which people
commit crimes as a by-product of being present for other purposes.
This study examines crime attractors and generators using Crime
Pattern Theory and several empirical examples: open illegal drug
markets; an established street prostitution area; break and enters
and motor vehicle theft patterns; and crime near rapid transit
Michael Munoz, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ. Lesbian Victims of Hate Crime: The Effects of Victimization.
Hate crimes against sexual minorities are
often under represented in the research done on hate crimes as a
whole, and lesbians are neglected even more in this respect. This
paper analyzes the effects of victimization for lesbians who are
victims of hate crime. This presentation examines how lesbians may
experience their victimization differently from gay men and how these
experiences are similar in many ways to anti-women violence in
general. The methodologies used for this project were
qualitative-unstructured interviews also borrowing from feminist
Paul Kincaid, Reno, Nevada. Twice Victimized: Law and Public Policy.
The California State Supreme Court in
People v. Shirley (1982), ruled that anyone hypnotized in a
criminal investigation cannot subsequently testify in a court of law.
In a review of that decision, the court opined that they had denied
defendant's due process and therefore exempted them from the
prohibition. This meant hypnosis is reliable for a defendant, but
unreliable for a victim. This presentation will discuss the
Shirley ruling and efforts to amend the State Evidence Code to
permit posthypnotic testimony by crime victims and witnesses, as well
as other related court decisions bearing on the issue. A successful
effort to get legislation permitting post-hypnosis testimony in
Nevada will be reviewed, as well as a successful prosecution
following the passage of that bill.
Janet Johnston, Administration of Justice, San Jose State University. Interventions with Multiply Victimized Children in the Community: An Evaluation Study.
This is the second year of a three year
project with the goals of a) providing group interventions for
children and their parents who have experienced trauma and violence,
and b) evaluating the effectiveness of the intervention. The project
is being undertaken at local neighborhood and school sites in six Bay
Area counties. To date, 138 children (ages 5 -13 years) and their
parents have participated in the outcome study. Half of the children
have been exposed to multiple types of traumatic events and one
fourth have suffered at least five of the six types of events (which
include separation/loss, neighborhood violence, domestic violence,
parenting problems, substance abuse and trouble with the law).
Ogbonnaya Oko Elechi, Simon Fraser University, Victims Under Restorative Justice Systems: The Afikpo (Ehugbo) Nigeria Model.
Relative to the modern Nigerian criminal
justice system, victims of crime under the Afrikpo indigenous systems
of conflict resolution are the focus of the justice process. Victims,
offenders and their families as well as the general community are
involved in defining harm and repair. All parties acknowledge the
emotional and material loss of the victim. Offenders and their
families are held responsible for the victim(s)' injury. Offenders
are persuaded to pay restitution to victims. They also apologize to
the victim, his/her family and the community. In sum, the goal of
justice is therefore the reparation of harm done to victims and
communities by offenders. Appropriate support are accorded victims
and their families by the community.
Charles M. Katz and Vincent J. Webb, Administration of Justice, Arizona State University, West. Gang Intervention Programs: The Views of Documented Gang Members.
The present study draws on data from an
ongoing assessment of the East Valley, Arizona Gang Intervention
Project. Using a team approach to case management, the Gang
Intervention Project is staffed by police gang investigators, youth
intervention specialists, social workers, family therapists,
probation officers, youth outreach workers, and neighborhood
development specialists who work together to reduce gang-related
problems by employing prevention, intervention, and suppression
strategies, as well as providing social and economic opportunities
for gang involved individuals and their families. The present study
seeks to assess the East Valley Gang Intervention Project from the
point of view of those gang members who come in contact with project
staff. Semi-structured interviews and self-reports with project
participants serve as the principle sources of data.
Lisa Pasko, Sociology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Juvenile Sex Offenses in Hawaii: An Analysis of Contemporary Social Response and Future Directions.
This paper examines the problem of juvenile
sexual offenders (JSO) in Hawaii. Historically and nationally, many
adolescent sex offenses were deemed as "community nuisances" or the
promiscuous sexual experimentation of growing boys. Since the early
1980s, the research findings on adult child molesters that has showed
that many began offending during adolescence, coupled with a strong
social movement to identify child abusers has sparked an initiative
to identify and treat sexually abusive youth. Hawaii has been part of
this growing movement. This paper will: 1) illustrate the typology of
the JSOs in Hawaii; 2) discuss Hawaii's social response to this
population; and finally, 3) evaluate further directions of treatment
of JSOs in Hawaii, including the possibility of restorative
David Huizinga and Rachele Espiritu, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO., Delinquent Behavior Before, During and After Different Official Dispositions.
This presentation examines the impact of
various official dispositions on the delinquent behavior of
arrestees. The self-reported delinquent behavior of arrestees before,
during and after informal and formal dispositions including lecture
and release, diversion to various programs, and sentences with and
without probation are examined. The data are taken from the Denver
Youth Survey, a twelve year ongoing developmental study of
conventional and problem behavior among 1527 children, youth and
Mona Lynch, Administration of Justice, San Jose State University. Modernist Rhetoric in Corrections: The Precarious Place of Rehabilitation in Parole Ideals and Practices.
This paper reports on a set of findings from
an ethnographic research project conducted in a parole field office
in cental California. It specifically addresses how the modernist
notion of rehabilitation is expressed in parole discourse and
practices, in light of the changing emphasis in penology toward an
aggregate risk management and danger control model (e.g. Feeley and
Simon, 1992; Simon, 1993). It appears that while the agency (and its
field agents) still espouse the validity of rehabilitative goals in
this arm of corrections, the resources to carry out those aims are in
short supply. Consequently, the rhetoric of rehabilitation is still
voiced, but rehabilitation in practice is reduced to a kind of
John Berner, California Board of Corrections, Update on the California Challenge Grant Program.
In 1997 grants awards totaling $45.7 million
were awarded to 14 California Counties to support 3 - year
demonstration projects designed to determine "what works" in curbing
juvenile crime and delinquency. An overview will be provided of the
nature of the funded projects, the status of project implementation,
and the methods being used to evaluate project success.
Justin Galt, Dept. of Sociology, UC, Riverside, Prisons and Profit: Trends in Privatization and Prison Labor.
The increasingly common melding of corrections and capitalism coincides with an extremely disproportionate number of people of color being incarcerated. As of 1997, African-American males made up
over half of the federal and state prison
population, while they comprised about 6% of the U.S. population.
Although profiting at the expense of others has been instrumental
throughout American history, we are now witness to an expansion of
private ownership and management of prisons, in which the majority
are persons of color who are oftentimes coerced into working for
virtually no compensation. The parallels within the penal system to
historical conditions of exploitation and oppression (such as
slavery, prison gulags, and concentration camps) are becoming harder
Linda Robyn, Criminal Justice Dept., Northern Arizona University: Environmental Law, Policy and Indigenous Knowledge.
Native peoples have been denied equal access to economic power in the past throughout the U. S. and Canada. Indigenous peoples have not been included in decision making concerning the environmental impact of corporate intrusion upon their lands. Today Native peoples are calling for inclusion by challenging powerful institutions through a critical perspective on power and control. Loss of power and autonomy through the process of colonialism has relegated Indigenous peoples to a position on the lower end of the social hierarchical scale. Indigenous knowledge and perspectives have been ignored and denigrated by social, physical, agricultural scientists, biologists, governments, and colonial powers seeking to exploit Indigenous resources. Outsiders place Indigenous knowledge in the categories of primitive, simple, "not knowledge," or folklore.
Racism, ethnocentrism, and complete faith in
the scientific method continue to foster images of Indigenous peoples
and their cultures as underdeveloped and unprogressive. This trend is
changing and can be fertile ground for research. By utilizing
power_reflexive critical thought, the limits to positivist,
scientific methods of inquiry are realized while opening a new area
of research in examining the use of Indigenous knowledge in creating
policy leading to environmental justice.
Robert Figlio, Dept. of Sociology, UC, Riverside, Social Control in Public Spaces.
Abstract Not Available
Deborah M. Plechner and Valerie J. Callanan, Presley Center for Crime and Justice Studies, UC Riverside. The War on Gangs: Criminology's Silent Support of the "Iron Fist" Approach.
In the last decade, a flurry of legislation
has been enacted designed to curtail gangs and gang activity
(sentencing enhancements, injunctions, and curfews). This
proliferation of punitive and constitutionally questionable laws and
ordinances is related to stereotypical notions about the nature,
prevalence, and activities of gangs. Law enforcement definitions of
"the gang problem" depict gangs as highly organized, extremely
violent criminal units who traffick in illegal drugs and other
contraband. The criminal justice system also views gangs as an
epidemic or plague that emanates outward from inner city communities,
This has supported a wave of unprecedented legislative control. This
paper discusses the nature, scope and consequences of these
legislative efforts, and examines the linkages between these laws and
their historical and current political economic contexts.
Rizwana Mahmood and Nancy Ramero, San Jose State University. An Analysis of the Escort Service Provided by the University Police Department at San Jose State University.
Due to the growing number of crimes on college and university campuses, campus safety is of great concern to all university communities across the nation. An escort service on campus is among many of the programs established to reduce crime and fear of crime. This study explores whether the Escort Service provided by the University Police at San Jose State is successful in reducing the fear of crime and increasing the feeling of safety. Findings show no relationship between the escort service with fear of crime and feeling of safety. However, fear did exist on campus and in the surrounding community. It was also found that those who were aware of have used the escort service expressed more fear than those who were not aware of or had not used the escort service. Limitations of the research and policy implications are discussed.
Deborah Parsons, Criminal Justice, CSU, San Bernardino. Campus Policing: The Transition from Revolvers to Semiautomatic Weapons.
Campus policing is often overlooked in research, with much of the research being two decades old. Most police research focuses on municipal policing. Campus police officers generally do not receive the same formal training nor are they equipped the same as municipal officers. This may be due to the greater security aspect of campus policing rather than a law enforcement emphasis. Statistics of crime on campus do not reflect those in the larger society, however there is a belief that the potential for violence exists. This belief has led many progressive campus police departments to increase their level of training and equipment.
The current, exploratory study examines a
community college district police department in southern California
making the transition from revolvers to semi-automatics. A brief
overview of the struggle between the administration, the board of
trustees, and the officers will be given. Informal interviews were
conducted regarding the perceptions of some of the key people in this
transition. Implications for other agencies are discussed.
Ron Boostrom, and Natalie Pearl, Criminal Justice Administration, San Diego State University. The Role of Community Organizations in Community Policing.
This paper explores the current reform
efforts to institute community policing and problem solving policing
as a social movement that envisions policing as a shared
professional-citizen partnership. In order to reorient police
departments and community groups to accept the new definitions of
police responsibility and community action inherent in community
policing philosophy, one million dollar training grants, administered
through the Department of Justice, have been given to 35 sites around
the country. These grants subsidize the creation of Regional
Community Policing Institutes to develop training curriculums and to
administer training in each of the regions. Having participated as
evaluators in the San Diego Regional Community policing Institute, we
present the lessons learned from the mandate to form a training
partnership between the San Diego Police Department and the San Diego
Organizing Project, an activist church-based community development
agency, will form the basis for questions to be raised about the
future of police-community partnerships to prevent crime. Issues of
boundary reshaping, shared authority for decision-making, and
differences over crime prevention strategies are developing as part
of an effort to form this partnership.
Randy Shelden, Dept. of Criminal Justice,
University of Nevada, Las Vegas; and Dan Macallair, Center on
Juvenile and Criminal Justice, San Francisco. The Political Realities
of Juvenile Justice Reform: The Detention Diversion Advocacy
Shirley Burgess, Federal Pre-Trial Release
Center, Las Vegas, Nevada. Racial Bias in the Certification
Vikki Irby, Clovis, CA., The Juvenile
Offender: Accountability in the Juvenile Justice System.
Ann Rubenstein and Francine Williams, San Diego Unified School District, "The San Diego Targeted Truancy and Public Safety Program"
The Targeted Truancy and Public Safety
Project (TTPS) is a three_year demonstration project. The project's
goal is to target and implement the most successful practices and
services for high_risk youth under the age of 16. TTPS is a
collaborative effort among the school district, the San Diego County
Probation Department, the Health and Human Services Agency and
numerous community_based organizations. This program offers a vital
link with schools, neighborhoods and families, fostering improved
attendance, academic achievement, and safer communities.
James Austin, Dept. Of Sociology, George
Washington University. The Diminishing Returns on Private
Ryan Sherman, California Peace Officer's
Association, Privatization and Public Safety: Not for Sale.
Dave McKell, Sociology Dept., Northern Arizona University, Politization of Correctional Policy.
This presentation will focus on several
states that have been subject to intense outside partisan politics
that have effected in various ways the policy formulation and
operation of the respective state correctional systems. This has had
mixed results and has led to internal policies of reaction and
resistence on the part of the professional subculture responsible for
operations and management.
Patrick Jackson, Sonoma State University,
Paula Hammett, Sonoma State University
Phyllis Gerstenfeld, CSU Stanislaus, Using the Internet to Enhance Student Learning: Examples of Class Projects.
This paper discusses some of the ways in
which the internet can be used to enhance learning in ways that were
once not possible. Two primary examples will be presented: a topical
website created by students as part of a class project, and a
collection of pages created by the instructor to supplement texts and
communicate with students in a particular class. Other possible
applications will be explored as well, including on-line opinion
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