Volume 2, Issue 1, June 1999

ISSN 1096-4886 http://www.westerncriminology.org/Western_Criminology_Review.htm
© 1999, The Western Criminology Review. All Rights Reserved.



Abstracts of Proceedings


(Follow the highlighted panel number to return to the respective proceedings panel.--Ed.)



Aaron Dalton, and Hiroshi Fukurai, Sociology, UC, Santa Cruz. Affirmative Action Strategies in Jury Selection: Affirmative Jury Structures and Affirmative Peremptory Inclusion Create Racially Mixed Juries.

This article examines possible applications of two affirmative action strategies in jury selection - affirmative jury structures and affirmative peremptory inclusion, in order to create racially mixed juries. We contend that with the use of an affirmative jury structure such as de medietate linguae jury, the Hennepin jury, and social science models, the court can effectively design three specific forms of racially mixed tribunals by requiring varying mandatory racial quotas. With the use of experimental data collected from a small group of undergraduate students at UC Santa Cruz, the paper empirically investigates the feasibility of affirmative action strategies in jury selection. The affirmative mechanism to secure racially-representative and racially-heterogeneous juries is essential to both the appearance and substance of fairness and justice in criminal jury proceedings and because maximizing the essence of trial fairness and verdict legitimacy is a compelling judicial and governmental interest.

Scott Senjo, Dept. of Criminal Justice, CSU, Bakersfield. The Power of the Bench Amid the Dilemma of Drugs and Crime.

The judge's role in the specialized drug court provides the criminal justice system an opportunity to address the problem of drugs and crime. Working within the ameliorative-therapeutic model of criminal case processing, the drug court judge is found to develop an unusually close relationship with offenders in the program and channel the power of the bench to assist offenders in their drug treatment. In an effort to quantify the main features of the judge's role, systematic research was conducted to define and measure the impact a drug court judge can have on promoting offenders to change themselves and commence a life free of drugs and crime. This study indicates that the role of drug court judge includes significant potential to address a difficult set of criminal justice circumstances.

Jeanette Sereno and Cecil Rhodes, Dept. of Sociology and Criminal Justice, CSU, Stanislaus. Tinkering with the Machinery of Death: The Supreme Court's Failed Experiment with the Death Penalty.

Prior to the 1960s the U.S. Supreme Court had little to do with the constitutionality of the death penalty. Its premise was, essentially, that State sanctioned executions of lawfully convicted individuals were neither cruel nor unusual and, thus, were constitutionally permissible. During the 1960s, with events surrounding the execution of Caryl Chessman, other social events such as the American Law Institute's published condemnation of capital punishment, the civil rights struggle, a moratorium on executions, and changes in the Court, the constitutionality of capital punishment was once again examined. Since Furman (1972), the arbitrariness, discrimination, capriciousness, inconsistencies and errors have returned. The dictates of Furman and Gregg for that matter have long become eroded by a death qualified court. In Callins v. Collins (1994) Justice Blackmun stated that "from this day forward he would 'no longer tinker with the machinery of death.'" This paper analyzes Blackmun's position in Callins v. Collins and provides a sequential legal and common sense explanation of why the Court's experiment with capital punishment has failed.

Stefanie Petrucci, UC, Davis, King Hall School of Law. The Impact of the Terhune Decision on the Commitment of Mentally Ill Offenders.

The California Supreme Court recently handed down the Terhune decision, which had the effect of releasing certain offenders from prison. These inmates fulfilled determinate sentences and were held in custody pending sexual predator commitment proceedings. As a result of the court order, ninety-three inmates were released on September 4, 1998. Twelve hours after being freed from custody, one offender, wearing only a tracking device on his ankle, raped an elderly woman in her hotel room. This presentation discusses the Terhune decision and the California Supreme Court's rationale as well as the avenues available for the commitment of mentally ill offenders. The Lanterman-Petris-Short Act and the Sexually Violent Predator Act are also discussed. Finally, the role of the Board of Prison Terms in evaluating mental status is examined.



Patricia Zajac, Dept. of Criminal Justice Administration, CSU, Hayward. Effectiveness of Physical Evidence in Criminal Investigations.

Forensic science and the utilization of physical evidence in criminal investigations have received considerable media coverage of late, particularly since the O. J. Simpson trials. Additionally, there have been revelations that physical evidence, especially DNA evidence, has exonerated suspects, even after convictions and long prison sentences that were based on traditional testimonial and physical evidence. The question considered here is how effective physical evidence is in criminal investigations and prosecutions.

Matthew Petrocelli, Dept. of Criminal Justice Administration, CSU, Hayward. Community Policing Effectiveness: Sergeants' Perspectives.

Although touted as the latest, greatest innovation in law enforcement, community policing has met with mixed reviews by practitioners. This paper qualitatively analyzes the effectiveness of community policing through the views of police supervisors. The findings are discussed in terms of their theoretical and policy implications.

Stephanie Amedeo-Marquez, Dept. of Criminal Justice Administration, CSU, Hayward. Outcomes-Based Evaluation of Judicial Discretion.

Sentencing can be seen as an outcome of judicial discretion. This paper discusses the effectiveness of the criminal justice system in terms of the sentencing process, with length of sentence as an outcome measure.

Mark Neithercutt and Ben Carmichael, Dept. of Criminal Justice Administration, CSU, Hayward. Sixteen-Year Follow Up of Felony Probationers.

The question of how well offenders perform after "treatment" gets various answers. This sixteen-year follow-up of felony probationers gives the question a slightly different slant.



Mikki E. Jones, College of Urban and Public Affairs, Portland State University. The Challenges of Restorative Justice.

There are two major orientations to making moral choices: rights/justice, which views morality being tied to respect for rules and justice being administered by a retributive system; and care/response, which sees morality as a contextual network of interpersonal relationships. Restorative justice attempts to create a new balance between these orientations. As well-meaning as this balance may be, it usually involves close alignment with, and sometimes almost complete domination by, and oppressive criminal justice system. One of the most important challenges for restorative justice, then, is to develop its potential standing as far away as possible from institutions that have grown within the rights/justice orientation. Ways to accomplish this are discussed.

Penn Weldon, College of Urban and Public Affairs, Portland State University. The Language of Restorative Justice.

The criminal justice system in the United States has had a history of using language and definitions that fail to recognize the depth and complexity of human interactions. This presentations explores this failure through personal experiences and other examples, with the intent of revealing that depth and the need for alternative avenues of justice. Restorative justice concepts are trying to break the confines of criminal justice rhetoric, giving "victims" and "offenders" greater access to an inclusive language of expression, while building community with responsibility. This is an attempt to add my voice to the gathering pool of information on restorative justice and to chip away at the divisive nature of our criminal justice system.

Charles Tracy, College of Urban and Public Affairs, Portland State University. The Promises of Restorative Justice.

Restorative justice sounds good in theory, particularly as an alternative to our current retributive justice system. But like all new and emerging social service programs, there is an important need to quickly demonstrate just how good it is in practice and what doesn't work so well. Many of the preliminary findings from the evaluation of such restorative justice programs as Victim Offender Mediation and Dialogue, Family Group Conferencing, and Circle Sentencing are quite encouraging. Data from this research, including a recent cross-national study, is presented with examples of some of the more promising programs.

Michael Day, College of Urban and Public Affairs, Portland State University. South Africa's Experience with Restorative Justice.

South Africa has just completed an interesting and valuable experience closely related to restorative justice concepts. Parts of this experience may have useful application to the restorative movement in the United States, particularly in the areas of reaching out to victims, reparation to victims, community-based justice, and criminal justice system accountability. The activities and results of South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission and the operation of the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation is discussed.


Chris Eskridge, University of Nebraska, Omaha. Thinking About Crime Rates: The Rise and Fall of UCR Figures.

Despite predictions of a downturn, aggregate UCR rates turned upward in the mid-1980s and reached an apex in 1991. The recently released 1997 figures marked the sixth year that those figures have fallen, with the crime rate now at a 25 year low. This paper explores possible reasons for these fluctuations. An aggregate correlation analysis examining crime rates and a number of social statistics is undertaken in an attempt to better understand this issue.

Christine Way, Center for Applied Social Analysis and Education, CSU Humboldt. Is Supervision Enough? A Look at Service Adequacy and the Reduction of Juvenile Crime in Humboldt County.

Using the classic experimental design, the Center for Applied Social Analysis and Education is evaluating the effectiveness of the Repeat Offender Prevention Project, a program designed to reduce recidivism among first time juvenile wards. A component of this evaluation examines the degree to which receiving adequate services reduces recidivism among the treatment youth. Adequacy of services is determined by the degree of fit between the individual client and services rendered. This entails a three state process of risk/need assessment, service plan analysis, and service profiling. While still a work in process, preliminary data suggests that supervision alone may not be enough.

Horst Senger, Simi Valley, CA, Missing Statistics of Criminology.

Statistics have always played an important role in all science. Computers seem to have become the leading factor in all we think and do relating to crime. Law seems to dominate criminological theorizing and criminal justice practice seems to leave ever fewer areas of private and public life from being investigated and prosecuted. Since Beccaria and the birth of modern criminology, the greatest thinkers about crime warned us about too many laws over behavior. With more refined and beautifully presented crime statistics, none are on the laws defining crimes. An example is the absence of the number of laws the average person has to obey daily. Also missing are such data as: What is the most violated law, the one first violated, the most frequent sequence of law violating by age groups, by locations, by year, etc. Also significant would be the amount of money spent on passing laws. Criminologists might find it useful to explore and present data about these and related factors.


Espinosa, Armando, Criminal Justice, CSU, Bakersfield. College Athletes and Crime.

Athletes are often stereotyped as role models. A role model is considered a positive reinforcement for young people. In the last few years, a stigma has developed regarding athletes and their negative influence on society. The structural-functionalist perspectives as well as the conflict theory of sports explore these two criterions. The structural-functionalist theory perceives athletes as a positive image for society. Furthermore, in order to deter crime, it encourages young kids to become athletes. On the other hand, conflict theory analyzes the negative impact that athletes have in society. This paper explores and compares the two perspectives and how the public reacts to this issue. Mass media plays a major role in making the public aware of an athlete's deviant behavior. Although college players are not earning money, they experience many of the same pressures as a professional athlete. A college player needs to perform well on the field and in his studies. Research indicates most athletes are involved in drinking and other deviant behavior as means to release their pressure. The paper will also address the collegiate athlete involvement in this type of behavior and the response of society and educational institutions.

Stephen M. Haas, CSU, Bakersfield. Assessing the Influence of Instigation Mechanisms on High School Aggression.

One of the most powerful and intriguing aspects of Bandura's social learning theory is its ability to account for the motivations often necessary for the performance of aggressive behavior. Social learning theory extends a tradition of frustration-aggression research and psychological theorizing to incorporate a diverse set of both aversive and incentive instigators that contribute to the performance of aggression. This research utilizes social learning theory as a framework for analyzing the motivation forces that often precede acts of aggression and violence in high schools. Using self-report data from 2,041 high school students in central and southern California, this research examines the influence of aversive conditions and incentive inducements on high school aggression. The results suggest a variety of instigation mechanisms are operating to influence levels of aggression and violence in high schools. Future directions for research and implications for program development are discussed.

Thomas K. Pinhey, University of Guam, Michael Perez, CSU, Fullerton, and Randall L. Workman, University of Guam. The Influence of Extracurricular Activities on the Fighting Behavior of Asian-Pacific Youth: Social Integration and Social Control Perspectives Revisited in a Cross-Cultural Context.

Drawing on classic social integrationist and social control perspectives, we test the hypothesis that participation in high school extracurricular activities reduces the fighting behavior of Asian-Pacific youth in Guam. Using ordinary least squares multiple regression analysis, we test the hypothesis with a probability sample of Guam's Asian-Pacific high school students. Controlling for age, ethnicity, gender, and a number of risk and protective factors, students who participate in extracurricular activities are less likely than others to participate in physical fighting, and that extracurricular activities buffer the effects of males' participation in physical confrontations.

Carmela Lomonaco, Social Science Research Institute, USC. Understanding Juvenile Violence.

A better understanding of the basic construction of juvenile-involved violence is necessary to develop more effective policy and prevention programs to combat the increasing severity of juvenile violence. Valuable information on juvenile violence patterns may be obtained through exploring the nature of violence as described by the youth involved. This presentation reports findings from 60 in-depth interviews conducted with youth who were violence victims and/or offenders. Incidents that carry gang, firearm and other weapon characteristics will be discussed for their similarity or deviation from other types of violent incidents. In addition, participant characteristics, witness participation, responsibility/accountability issues and some decision-making processes experienced by juveniles when confronted with violence, will be explored.

Frank P. Williams III, Dept. of Criminal Justice, Northern Arizona University. The Simplicity of Criminological Theory: Whatever Happened to the Complexity of Reality?

Criminological theories appear to adhere to the scientific holy grail: the explanation of as much as possible with as little as possible. A brief critique is offered of the major theories by way of a search for reality in crime events. It is argued that reality is complex and multi-dimensional. A reasonable explanation of a crime event should have an understanding of background and foreground factors, be multidisciplinary, and understand the importance of both objective and subjective factors present in both action and reaction.


Rex Reed, Division of Classification and Planning, Nevada Dept of Prisons. Marching After Folly: An Analysis of the Drug War Policy.

This paper develops a model of policy failure called the "Tuchman Cycle." The model highlights one way in which policy makers stumble when trying to implement and enforce a selected policy, such as the drug war. The failure begins when policy makers underestimate the strength of their opponents and continues as government officials cannot learn enough from their initial failures to overcome the unsuccessful implementation. The Tuchman Cycle's last stage is stagnation: the market's quick innovations overcome a government's bureaucratically instituted policy in such a way that government officials can learn no effective ways to amend the policy. Therefore, they bog down in simply repackaging failed policies as new initiatives. The Tuchman Cycle is one example of when the market wins over government attempts at regulation.

Claudia E. Lavenant, Craig L. Hayward, and Paul Jesilow University of California, Irvine, Tort Reform and Physician Sanctioning.

State legislatures have passed tort reforms to hold down medical costs. Such legal modifications are requested by physicians who have had their bank accounts diminished by rising malpractice fees. For their part, legislatures have granted the tort reforms with physicians' promise that the profession would do a better job of policing their own. The present study examines the association of the passage of tort reforms with the level of sanctions levied against physicians. A quasi-experimental design is employed to determine whether the introduction of tort reforms affected physician sanctioning. The association of nine tort reforms with reported levels of physician sanctioning was analyzed across a ten year span in fifty states and the District of Colombia. The results indicate an association between the passage of certain tort reforms and the number of physicians sanctioned. A number of other competing hypotheses are discussed.

Elizabeth D. Leonard, Vanguard University/Southern California College and Kate Auerhahn, UC Riverside. Docile Women: Psychotropic Drugs and the Female Inmate.

In the past two decades, the proportion of American citizens under correctional supervision has increased dramatically, straining criminal justice system resources in a number of ways. This paper asserts that one response to this strain has been the use of psychotropic medications on prison and jail inmates as a means of social control. It has been argued that these drugs are used with greater frequency on female inmates, relative to their male counterparts. In this paper, we report evidence supporting this claim, and offer a theoretical explanation for this practice that focuses on historical conceptions of women in Western philosophical, medical, and criminological thought. Finally, data from in-depth qualitative interviews with forty-two incarcerated women are used to explore the meaning and consequences of the use of chemical restraints on female inmates.

David Farabee, Vandana Joshi, and M. Douglas Anglin, Drug Abuse Research Center, UCLA. Criminal and Addiction Careers of DATOS Clients.

For many drug users, the initiation of drug use and the subsequent transition to an addiction career is accompanied by criminal activities. However, the use of general crime and drug use categories often obscures important features of their relationship. In the present study, data from the national Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Study (DATOS) sample of 10,010 clients in substance abuse treatment were analyzed to explore the relationships between several addiction career variables and the likelihood of lifetime participation in victimful, victimless, and non-specialized criminal behaviors. The order of initiation of addiction and criminal careers was significantly related to participation in certain types of crimes, with those beginning criminal careers after beginning their addiction careers being more likely to engage in victimless than victimful crimes. Likewise, dependence on cocaine, heroin or both, relative to alcohol, was associated with greater criminal diversity, but a reduced likelihood of participating specifically in victimful crimes.

Michael Perez, Dept of Sociology, CSU Fullerton, Linkages between Substance Use and Violence: A Research Note on Guam's Youth.

This research note reports preliminary findings on connections between substance use and violence among Guam's youth. Based on the literature, we propose positive linkages between substance use and violence factors. We specifically explore substance use and violence in terms of reported use of substances, likelihood of students to use various substances, student sentiments regarding the contribution of drugs to violence, perceptions of violence, exposure to violence and engagement in fighting. Utilizing multiple regression, we analyze data from a sample of Guam's high school students. This research note proceeds with a brief discussion of the literature and theory. Preliminary bivariate and multivariate findings are presented. Implications for subsequent cross-cultural research, intervention and prevention are also discussed.


Sharon Mihalic, Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence, University of Colorado, What Works in Violence Prevention

Learn what the research literature says about violence prevention and "what works." The Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence has identified ten model violence prevention programs, called Blueprints, which span the infancy to late adolescence period. These are programs that have met rigorous scientific criteria for program effectiveness. Core elements of each of these programs will be discussed. Information will also be presented on funding opportunities for implementing Blueprints programs.

Darlanne Hoctor Mulmat, Criminal Justice Research Division, San Diego Association of Governments, Delinquency Prevention through Assessment in the Community

Through a Challenge Grant from the California Board of Corrections, the San Diego County Probation Department has created interagency Community Assessment Centers to assess the needs of at-risk youth for delinquency. Following assessment, services and referrals designed to prevent the youth from entering the justice system are provided. The project involves extensive data collection by program staff. This presentation will provide an overview of the project and preliminary findings.

Cynthia Rienick, Criminal Justice Research Division, San Diego Association of Governments, "At_Risk Juveniles and Families in Need: Identifying Problem Areas and Providing a Continuum of Services"

The Reflections Program is a structured day center that offers family_focused interventions to high_risk youth and families in the juvenile justice and dependency systems who are severely at risk of having one or more children removed from the home. A multi_disciplinary team of probation officers and therapists, using a "positive peer culture" model approach, implements intervention strategies. Since July 1996, over 300 juveniles have entered Reflections. This presentation will provide an overview of the program, as well as impact evaluation findings pertaining to gains in problem areas, as well as criminal activity, drug use, and out_of_home placement before and after participation.

David Mayeda, Youth Gang Project, University of Hawaii, Constructing Ethnicity and Masculinity Within the Confines of Urban Honolulu.

Abstract Not Available


Sharrell Blakeley, California Dept. of Corrections. Family Foundations.

In May, 1994, CDC was authorized to construct 3 residential treatment programs for pregnant and parenting female offenders. Three counties with populations over 450,000 have been targeted for participation (Los Angeles, San Diego and Fresno). The program, Family Foundations, servicing approximately 115 eligible women will provide medical, educational and counseling programs, individual and family counseling, psychiatric evaluation, vocational training and parenting classes. The program's unique feature is that women will enter directly from county jail. The program's mission is to reduce alcohol and drug use, criminal activity, recidivism, as well as drug-exposed and low birth weight babies.

Meda Chesney-Lind and Vickie Paramore, Women's Studies, University of Hawaii at Manoa. Contextualizing Girls Violence: An Inquiry into Female Juvenile Robbery.

Given the upward trend in girls' arrests for violent offenses, there is clear need to investigate the shifts in arrest patterns. Hawaii, like other states, has seen an increase in girl's "share" of robbery arrests, as well as a dramatic increase in the arrests of youth for this offense. As an example, between 1994 and 1996, the number of youth arrested for robbery in Hawaii doubled, and the proportion of robbery arrests accounted for by girls jumped from 13% to 18%.

This paper presents preliminary data on the meaning of these shifts by examining details on juvenile robbery arrests in two time periods, 1991 and 1997. Data will be presented to explore the dimensions of juvenile robbery during the two time periods including exploration of arrestee characteristics, victim characteristics, and robbery characteristics (e.g. weapon use, items taken setting). Results indicate that shifts in reporting rather than changes in girls' or boys' behavior may account for most of the increase in juvenile robbery arrests in Honolulu.

Angel Ilarraza Fuentes, Dept. Of Sociology, Texas Christian University and Cdr Julia A. Stokes, Federal Bureau of Prisons, Carswell. Sharing Hope About Recovery Experiences: Women Inside Helping Girls Outside.

In 1996, various administrative staff at the Federal Bureau of Prisons: Federal Medical Center, Carswell (Fort Worth, Texas) met to explore the development of a community outreach program. The outcome of the meeting was the "Sharing Hope About Recovery Experiences" (SHARE) project. Today, SHARE is recognized as a valuable programmatic and rehabilitative component among members of the inmate population at FMC. Additionally, the SHARE project has positively influenced the lives of many female teenagers who were "at risk" for subsequent criminality. This paper will describe the SHARE project and discuss some of the issues surrounding the success of the project as an outreach program that originates, (and predominantly operates) from within the confines of a federal prison for women.

Barbara Owen, Dept. of Criminology, CSU Fresno. Women and Imprisonment in the United States: The General Consequences of the U.S. Imprisonment Binge.

In the last twenty-five years, the number of women imprisoned in the United States has increased rapidly with the rate of growth in women's imprisonment far outpacing that of men's imprisonment. As the U.S. continues its imprisonment binge, a remarkable gender based difference in the rate of this increase must be explained. The "so-called Îwar on drugs' and related changes in legislation, law enforcement practices and judicial decision making" has fueled this dramatic increase in the punishment and incarceration of women. This paper looks at actual crime and arrests, the patriarchal structure of the social control system and the decreasing economic opportunities available to women, including changes in the public welfare system. Pains of imprisonment and program needs are also outlined.


Nancy LaVigne, Director, Crime Mapping Research Center, NIJ, Washington, DC. Spatial Analyses of Crime and Criminal Behavior: An Overview of Current Research Applications.

This paper gives an overview of the work of the Crime Mapping Research Center at the National Institute of Justice and provides a summary of some current research applications of geographic information systems in criminal justice.

D. Kim Rossmo, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada. Clues in Crime Maps: The Manhattan East Side Rapist.

Geographic crime patterns are clues that, when properly decoded, can be used to point in the direction of the offender. This paper will discuss serial rape in Manhattan generally, and then examine in detail the crime patterns of the Upper East Side serial rapist, responsible for at least 17 victims. This offender has exhibited a consistent hunting method, resulting in an interpretable pattern of crime locations. Crime maps, local area knowledge, environmental criminology theory, and geographic profiling were all used to develop investigative strategies for the NYPD.

Krista Joyner, GIS Analyst, Valley Professional Services, Chico, CA. Monitoring 290s: Using GIS to Demonstrate Limitations of Megan's Law in California.

Megan's Law is becoming increasingly familiar to a variety of individuals in a society demanding better tools with which to protect themselves and their children against serious violent sexual predators. Although the driving force behind Megan's Law is one of good intentions, there are many issues that make proactive public disclosures somewhat unreasonable for law enforcement agencies to perform with any degree of accuracy and/or consistency. This research uses innovative geographic information systems technology to explore the demographic nature of a small community, its sex offenders, and some limitations of Megan's Law legislation in the state of California.

Patricia Brantingham and Paul Brantingham, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada. The Role of Theory in Crime Mapping.

Modern GIS systems for personal computers have made automated pin mapping a straightforward task for many police departments. Improved crime analysis techniques will require greater use of criminological theory. Use of theories drawn from environmental criminology for informed crime analysis is illustrated using Vancouver calls for service data.

Terry Whin-Yates, Simon Fraser University, Beyond Pin Maps: Using GIS to Map Crime Attractors and Crime Generators.

Crime attractors are activity nodes to which people travel for the purpose of committing some specific crime. Crime generators are high volume activity nodes at which people commit crimes as a by-product of being present for other purposes. This study examines crime attractors and generators using Crime Pattern Theory and several empirical examples: open illegal drug markets; an established street prostitution area; break and enters and motor vehicle theft patterns; and crime near rapid transit stations.


Michael Munoz, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ. Lesbian Victims of Hate Crime: The Effects of Victimization.

Hate crimes against sexual minorities are often under represented in the research done on hate crimes as a whole, and lesbians are neglected even more in this respect. This paper analyzes the effects of victimization for lesbians who are victims of hate crime. This presentation examines how lesbians may experience their victimization differently from gay men and how these experiences are similar in many ways to anti-women violence in general. The methodologies used for this project were qualitative-unstructured interviews also borrowing from feminist methodologies.

Paul Kincaid, Reno, Nevada. Twice Victimized: Law and Public Policy.

The California State Supreme Court in People v. Shirley (1982), ruled that anyone hypnotized in a criminal investigation cannot subsequently testify in a court of law. In a review of that decision, the court opined that they had denied defendant's due process and therefore exempted them from the prohibition. This meant hypnosis is reliable for a defendant, but unreliable for a victim. This presentation will discuss the Shirley ruling and efforts to amend the State Evidence Code to permit posthypnotic testimony by crime victims and witnesses, as well as other related court decisions bearing on the issue. A successful effort to get legislation permitting post-hypnosis testimony in Nevada will be reviewed, as well as a successful prosecution following the passage of that bill.

Janet Johnston, Administration of Justice, San Jose State University. Interventions with Multiply Victimized Children in the Community: An Evaluation Study.

This is the second year of a three year project with the goals of a) providing group interventions for children and their parents who have experienced trauma and violence, and b) evaluating the effectiveness of the intervention. The project is being undertaken at local neighborhood and school sites in six Bay Area counties. To date, 138 children (ages 5 -13 years) and their parents have participated in the outcome study. Half of the children have been exposed to multiple types of traumatic events and one fourth have suffered at least five of the six types of events (which include separation/loss, neighborhood violence, domestic violence, parenting problems, substance abuse and trouble with the law).

Ogbonnaya Oko Elechi, Simon Fraser University, Victims Under Restorative Justice Systems: The Afikpo (Ehugbo) Nigeria Model.

Relative to the modern Nigerian criminal justice system, victims of crime under the Afrikpo indigenous systems of conflict resolution are the focus of the justice process. Victims, offenders and their families as well as the general community are involved in defining harm and repair. All parties acknowledge the emotional and material loss of the victim. Offenders and their families are held responsible for the victim(s)' injury. Offenders are persuaded to pay restitution to victims. They also apologize to the victim, his/her family and the community. In sum, the goal of justice is therefore the reparation of harm done to victims and communities by offenders. Appropriate support are accorded victims and their families by the community.


Charles M. Katz and Vincent J. Webb, Administration of Justice, Arizona State University, West. Gang Intervention Programs: The Views of Documented Gang Members.

The present study draws on data from an ongoing assessment of the East Valley, Arizona Gang Intervention Project. Using a team approach to case management, the Gang Intervention Project is staffed by police gang investigators, youth intervention specialists, social workers, family therapists, probation officers, youth outreach workers, and neighborhood development specialists who work together to reduce gang-related problems by employing prevention, intervention, and suppression strategies, as well as providing social and economic opportunities for gang involved individuals and their families. The present study seeks to assess the East Valley Gang Intervention Project from the point of view of those gang members who come in contact with project staff. Semi-structured interviews and self-reports with project participants serve as the principle sources of data.

Lisa Pasko, Sociology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Juvenile Sex Offenses in Hawaii: An Analysis of Contemporary Social Response and Future Directions.

This paper examines the problem of juvenile sexual offenders (JSO) in Hawaii. Historically and nationally, many adolescent sex offenses were deemed as "community nuisances" or the promiscuous sexual experimentation of growing boys. Since the early 1980s, the research findings on adult child molesters that has showed that many began offending during adolescence, coupled with a strong social movement to identify child abusers has sparked an initiative to identify and treat sexually abusive youth. Hawaii has been part of this growing movement. This paper will: 1) illustrate the typology of the JSOs in Hawaii; 2) discuss Hawaii's social response to this population; and finally, 3) evaluate further directions of treatment of JSOs in Hawaii, including the possibility of restorative justice.

David Huizinga and Rachele Espiritu, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO., Delinquent Behavior Before, During and After Different Official Dispositions.

This presentation examines the impact of various official dispositions on the delinquent behavior of arrestees. The self-reported delinquent behavior of arrestees before, during and after informal and formal dispositions including lecture and release, diversion to various programs, and sentences with and without probation are examined. The data are taken from the Denver Youth Survey, a twelve year ongoing developmental study of conventional and problem behavior among 1527 children, youth and young adults.

Mona Lynch, Administration of Justice, San Jose State University. Modernist Rhetoric in Corrections: The Precarious Place of Rehabilitation in Parole Ideals and Practices.

This paper reports on a set of findings from an ethnographic research project conducted in a parole field office in cental California. It specifically addresses how the modernist notion of rehabilitation is expressed in parole discourse and practices, in light of the changing emphasis in penology toward an aggregate risk management and danger control model (e.g. Feeley and Simon, 1992; Simon, 1993). It appears that while the agency (and its field agents) still espouse the validity of rehabilitative goals in this arm of corrections, the resources to carry out those aims are in short supply. Consequently, the rhetoric of rehabilitation is still voiced, but rehabilitation in practice is reduced to a kind of self-help therapy.

John Berner, California Board of Corrections, Update on the California Challenge Grant Program.

In 1997 grants awards totaling $45.7 million were awarded to 14 California Counties to support 3 - year demonstration projects designed to determine "what works" in curbing juvenile crime and delinquency. An overview will be provided of the nature of the funded projects, the status of project implementation, and the methods being used to evaluate project success.


Justin Galt, Dept. of Sociology, UC, Riverside, Prisons and Profit: Trends in Privatization and Prison Labor.

The increasingly common melding of corrections and capitalism coincides with an extremely disproportionate number of people of color being incarcerated. As of 1997, African-American males made up

over half of the federal and state prison population, while they comprised about 6% of the U.S. population. Although profiting at the expense of others has been instrumental throughout American history, we are now witness to an expansion of private ownership and management of prisons, in which the majority are persons of color who are oftentimes coerced into working for virtually no compensation. The parallels within the penal system to historical conditions of exploitation and oppression (such as slavery, prison gulags, and concentration camps) are becoming harder to ignore.

Linda Robyn, Criminal Justice Dept., Northern Arizona University: Environmental Law, Policy and Indigenous Knowledge.

Native peoples have been denied equal access to economic power in the past throughout the U. S. and Canada. Indigenous peoples have not been included in decision making concerning the environmental impact of corporate intrusion upon their lands. Today Native peoples are calling for inclusion by challenging powerful institutions through a critical perspective on power and control. Loss of power and autonomy through the process of colonialism has relegated Indigenous peoples to a position on the lower end of the social hierarchical scale. Indigenous knowledge and perspectives have been ignored and denigrated by social, physical, agricultural scientists, biologists, governments, and colonial powers seeking to exploit Indigenous resources. Outsiders place Indigenous knowledge in the categories of primitive, simple, "not knowledge," or folklore.

Racism, ethnocentrism, and complete faith in the scientific method continue to foster images of Indigenous peoples and their cultures as underdeveloped and unprogressive. This trend is changing and can be fertile ground for research. By utilizing power_reflexive critical thought, the limits to positivist, scientific methods of inquiry are realized while opening a new area of research in examining the use of Indigenous knowledge in creating policy leading to environmental justice.

Robert Figlio, Dept. of Sociology, UC, Riverside, Social Control in Public Spaces.

Abstract Not Available

Deborah M. Plechner and Valerie J. Callanan, Presley Center for Crime and Justice Studies, UC Riverside. The War on Gangs: Criminology's Silent Support of the "Iron Fist" Approach.

In the last decade, a flurry of legislation has been enacted designed to curtail gangs and gang activity (sentencing enhancements, injunctions, and curfews). This proliferation of punitive and constitutionally questionable laws and ordinances is related to stereotypical notions about the nature, prevalence, and activities of gangs. Law enforcement definitions of "the gang problem" depict gangs as highly organized, extremely violent criminal units who traffick in illegal drugs and other contraband. The criminal justice system also views gangs as an epidemic or plague that emanates outward from inner city communities, This has supported a wave of unprecedented legislative control. This paper discusses the nature, scope and consequences of these legislative efforts, and examines the linkages between these laws and their historical and current political economic contexts.


Rizwana Mahmood and Nancy Ramero, San Jose State University. An Analysis of the Escort Service Provided by the University Police Department at San Jose State University.

Due to the growing number of crimes on college and university campuses, campus safety is of great concern to all university communities across the nation. An escort service on campus is among many of the programs established to reduce crime and fear of crime. This study explores whether the Escort Service provided by the University Police at San Jose State is successful in reducing the fear of crime and increasing the feeling of safety. Findings show no relationship between the escort service with fear of crime and feeling of safety. However, fear did exist on campus and in the surrounding community. It was also found that those who were aware of have used the escort service expressed more fear than those who were not aware of or had not used the escort service. Limitations of the research and policy implications are discussed.

Deborah Parsons, Criminal Justice, CSU, San Bernardino. Campus Policing: The Transition from Revolvers to Semiautomatic Weapons.

Campus policing is often overlooked in research, with much of the research being two decades old. Most police research focuses on municipal policing. Campus police officers generally do not receive the same formal training nor are they equipped the same as municipal officers. This may be due to the greater security aspect of campus policing rather than a law enforcement emphasis. Statistics of crime on campus do not reflect those in the larger society, however there is a belief that the potential for violence exists. This belief has led many progressive campus police departments to increase their level of training and equipment.

The current, exploratory study examines a community college district police department in southern California making the transition from revolvers to semi-automatics. A brief overview of the struggle between the administration, the board of trustees, and the officers will be given. Informal interviews were conducted regarding the perceptions of some of the key people in this transition. Implications for other agencies are discussed.

Ron Boostrom, and Natalie Pearl, Criminal Justice Administration, San Diego State University. The Role of Community Organizations in Community Policing.

This paper explores the current reform efforts to institute community policing and problem solving policing as a social movement that envisions policing as a shared professional-citizen partnership. In order to reorient police departments and community groups to accept the new definitions of police responsibility and community action inherent in community policing philosophy, one million dollar training grants, administered through the Department of Justice, have been given to 35 sites around the country. These grants subsidize the creation of Regional Community Policing Institutes to develop training curriculums and to administer training in each of the regions. Having participated as evaluators in the San Diego Regional Community policing Institute, we present the lessons learned from the mandate to form a training partnership between the San Diego Police Department and the San Diego Organizing Project, an activist church-based community development agency, will form the basis for questions to be raised about the future of police-community partnerships to prevent crime. Issues of boundary reshaping, shared authority for decision-making, and differences over crime prevention strategies are developing as part of an effort to form this partnership.


Randy Shelden, Dept. of Criminal Justice, University of Nevada, Las Vegas; and Dan Macallair, Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice, San Francisco. The Political Realities of Juvenile Justice Reform: The Detention Diversion Advocacy Project.

Abstract Not Available

Shirley Burgess, Federal Pre-Trial Release Center, Las Vegas, Nevada. Racial Bias in the Certification Process.

Abstract Not Available

Vikki Irby, Clovis, CA., The Juvenile Offender: Accountability in the Juvenile Justice System.

Abstract Not Available

Ann Rubenstein and Francine Williams, San Diego Unified School District, "The San Diego Targeted Truancy and Public Safety Program"

The Targeted Truancy and Public Safety Project (TTPS) is a three_year demonstration project. The project's goal is to target and implement the most successful practices and services for high_risk youth under the age of 16. TTPS is a collaborative effort among the school district, the San Diego County Probation Department, the Health and Human Services Agency and numerous community_based organizations. This program offers a vital link with schools, neighborhoods and families, fostering improved attendance, academic achievement, and safer communities.


James Austin, Dept. Of Sociology, George Washington University. The Diminishing Returns on Private Prisons.

Abstract Not Available

Ryan Sherman, California Peace Officer's Association, Privatization and Public Safety: Not for Sale.

Abstract Not Available

Dave McKell, Sociology Dept., Northern Arizona University, Politization of Correctional Policy.

This presentation will focus on several states that have been subject to intense outside partisan politics that have effected in various ways the policy formulation and operation of the respective state correctional systems. This has had mixed results and has led to internal policies of reaction and resistence on the part of the professional subculture responsible for operations and management.


Patrick Jackson, Sonoma State University, Chair

Paula Hammett, Sonoma State University

Phyllis Gerstenfeld, CSU Stanislaus, Using the Internet to Enhance Student Learning: Examples of Class Projects.

This paper discusses some of the ways in which the internet can be used to enhance learning in ways that were once not possible. Two primary examples will be presented: a topical website created by students as part of a class project, and a collection of pages created by the instructor to supplement texts and communicate with students in a particular class. Other possible applications will be explored as well, including on-line opinion surveys.


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