Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2001

ISSN 1096-4886 http://www.westerncriminology.org/Western_Criminology_Review.htm
© 2001, The Western Criminology Review. All Rights Reserved.



Abstracts of Proceedings







"Diversity and Justice"



February 24th - 26th, 2000

Kona, Hawaii




Program Abstracts




Session 1.1: Women and Girls in the Justice System (Part 1)

Panel Chair: Barbara Bloom




"Women’s Prisons: Unmet Needs and Program Recommendations"

Barbara Owen & Barbara Bloom

Enormous increases in population characterize the women’s prisons in the 1990s. In 1980, 12,300 women were imprisoned in state and federal institutions, rising to 44,065 in 1990 and to 75,000 women in 1996. By 1998, this number had risen to 84,427, an almost fourfold increase in just under twenty years. Although these numbers continue to rise, the needs of women prisoners remain neglected by correctional policy. This paper outlines some of these issues, including substance abuse treatment, physical and mental health care, vocational and educational programming, victimization and needs relating to the children of incarcerated mothers. The idea of gender-specific principles, as articulated by Bloom & Covington, is discussed in terms of their application to program development for women prisoners. The paper concludes with a discussion of program recommendations, which include community interventions, economic self-sufficiency, substance abuse treatment, family and personal issues and program evaluation and monitoring.



"Women’s Psychological Development: A Theoretical Approach to Gender-Responsive Services"

Stephanie Covington


The dramatic increase in women’s criminal justice involvement in the past decade has expanded the awareness of the need for gender-responsive services. The relational theory of women’s psychological development provides a framework of thought and a theoretical foundation for the creation of programming that meets the needs of women. In this presentation, relational theory is also discussed in terms of women’s life experiences, particularly those with a history of substance abuse and/or trauma.


"Trials and Errors: Imprisoned Battered Women’s Experiences of Adjudication"

Elizabeth Dermody Leonard

Battered women who kill to survive often receive guilty verdicts accompanied by long, harsh sentences. The cases presented demonstrate that courts systematically decontextualize women's lethal self-defense from their partners' ongoing violence and threats. The narratives of incarcerated battered women reveal that they are denied the opportunity to present their stories along with corroborating and potentially exculpatory evidence. Thus, their trials produce distorted and inaccurate pictures of homicide events and women's motives.


"SISTERS: Empowering Women Offenders to Reach for Success"

Jodie Maesaka-Hirata

A review of the State of Hawaii Department of Public Safety's SISTERS Program and how culture, family, and society's roles impact the success of its women offenders' re-socialization process. SISTERS is a holistically designed program that provides women offenders with an eclectic overview of life skills, available community resources, and information that can foster a crime-free lifestyle upon reentry into the community.



Session 1.2: Evaluation Issues

Panel Chair: Bruce Berg


"Evaluation Issues in Criminological Research: The Consequences of Doing Gender" Holly Nicole Mead & Valerie J. Callanan

This paper explores various manifestations of doing gender by examining how criminological research teams evaluate both gang membership as well as the administrative implementation of preventative gang programs that aim to curb the violent nature of 'the gang problem' in Southern California. Using participant observation and interviews, we argue that not only is gang formation constructed through masculinity, prevention programs designed to control gangs are also often supervised by men and governed by a masculine sense of deviance, danger and citizenship. Consequently, many problems arise. First, for program evaluators, the intersection of gender, race and level of education affects the process of data collection, including gang members' willingness to participate, their interpretation of criminological research teams, and the credibility of evaluation. Second, administrators also question the legitimacy of research teams and their interpretation of results, impeding the research team's ability to be positive facilitators of maintaining the project's initial research goals. These two factors combined tend to obstruct the research process, undermine the credibility of results, and slow down the successful evaluation of gang prevention programs. Discussions of the implications of these findings are presented.


"Systems Analysis & the Evaluation of Sentencing Reform Impacts"

Kathleen Auerhahn

In the past two decades, the United States has witnessed massive growth in prison populations. At the same time, an unprecedented amount of sentencing reform activity has also taken place. Nowhere are these two trends more pronounced than in California, where the prison population has more than quadrupled since 1980. In recent years a number of reform initiatives with potentially wide-ranging effects have been implemented in California. The most well known of these is the state's Three Strikes law. Due to the recency of this and other reforms, sufficient data are not available for reliable analysis via conventional statistical methods. I propose an alternate strategy that I term "predictive evaluation" that utilizes dynamic systems simulation modeling in order to assess the impacts of sentencing reforms under a variety of conditions, and with respect to a variety of objectives. I argue that it is important to consider the systemic character of reforms, in that structural constraints (such as facility capacity) may have an effect on the implementation and outcome of specific reforms. This evaluation strategy differs from simple population projections in that it allows us to look at the composition as well as size of prison populations, in terms of demographics and criminal history of incarcerated populations, something generally not incorporated into linear-extrapolation population projection analyses. A brief overview and demonstration of the systems-based evaluation strategy will be presented.


Cross-Site Evaluations: The 8% Evaluation Project in San Diego County"

Cynthia Burke Rienick, Darlanne Hoctor Mulmat, & Susan Pennell

This paper reports findings from the process and impact evaluation of the San Diego Repeat Offender Prevention Program (ROPP). Funded by the California Board of Corrections (BOC), the project involves collaboration between many agencies in the provision of services to delinquent youth and their families. After two years of program implementation, several promising results are identified.


"Risk Factors Associated with Recidivism Among Serious-Violent Young Offenders"

Raymond R. Corrado & Irwin M. Cohen

A consistent findings in the United States and Canada is that a large number of young offender recidivate. Several key factors, such as type of offender and offense history, play a significant role in recidivism. This paper discusses the findings of a research project assessing the risk factors associated with recidivism among 500 incarcerated serious, including violent, young offenders in Vancouver, Canada. Structured and semi-structured interviews were conducted at all points of the incarcerations process and follow-up interviews were conducted with those youths who were re-incarcerated during the initial 18 months of the research project. IN addition, a review of each subjects’ official file, including institutional reports, predisposition reports, and reports by social workers, psychologists, psychiatrists, and police were examined. The analysis presented in this paper focuses on those variables that best predict recidivism, what "type" of young offenders are most likely to recidivate, what young offenders think about and consider before they commit an offense, the relative weight given to various issues by youth in their decisions to recidivate, the impact of incarceration and other sanctions on intentions to recidivate, and what serious young offenders believe what have the greatest positive impact on decisions to recidivate in terms of both criminal responses to offending and non-criminal justice initiatives.




Session 1.3: Law & the Courts

Panel Chair: Mara Libuser


"The Effects of Legal Representation on the Criminal Justice System in Pennsylvania"

Abdul-Quadri Akintunde Adeseun

This research examines the four categories of legal representations to learn the effects they have on case flow problems in the Courts of Common Pleas in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. In addition, this paper will explore the impact of legal representations on correctional resources. The primary goal of this research is to develop comprehensive information from a systematic point of view. This information will help decision makers develop a better criminal justice system for the citizens of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and the USA overall.


"Precisely Who Has Rights Under the Fourth Amendment? The Supreme Court’s Restriction of the Right to Contest Government Invasions of Privacy"

George M. Dery, III

This paper will examine recent law potentially signaling a dramatic change in the United States Supreme Court's interpretation of the Fourth Amendment. The Supreme Court has reevaluated the scope of privacy rights, restricting who may assert a violation of the Fourth Amendment. The source of this development will be identified and explained, and its implications on the equality of access to Constitutional rights will be considered.


"The Relationship Between Eyewitness Identification, Confidence, and Accuracy"

Mara Libuser

Eyewitness identifications are an important part of the judicial process, so much so that just in the past two decades hundreds of journal articles have been published on how accurate these identifications might be. Witness identifications are often critical evidence in many criminal trials, so it is important to know whether we can trust these identifications. The prevailing position in the research to date is that there is a low, if nonexistent, relationship between how certain a person is in their identification and the accuracy of the identification. This stance resulted from research that has produced many results showing most low correlations between confidence and accuracy when averaged overall all subjects. However, there is still an obvious, intuitive appeal to have a relationship between confidence and accuracy. This allure is supported through a different kind of analysis of eyewitness identifications, namely analysis at the level of response, such that accuracy is computed for each level of confidence for a given decision over many decisions by many subjects. This produces a significant relationship between confidence and accuracy, contrary to popular opinion among researchers in this area. IN short, the following paper will describe the errors that others have made in the ways they computed this relationship and why these methods are flawed.



Session 2.1: Women and Girls in the Justice System (Part 2)

Panel Chair: Barbara Bloom



"A Postmodern Feminist Critique of the Post-Release Programs Available to Women in British Columbia, Canada"

Aili Malm

After a woman is released from prison, her success in the community is largely dependent on the assistance that she receives during the first six months of her transition. This interview study assesses the availability of community programs for women exiting prison in British Columbia's lower mainland, using a feminist/Foucauldian critique. The employees from twelve different community agencies were interviewed in order to obtain information as to whether the needs of women released from prison were being adequately addressed. The information presented in this study illustrates how community agencies/programs for women released from prison are beneficial for their clients, but due to different factors, they do not meet all of the women's unique needs. In particular, emergency transition needs such as shelter, clothing, and daycare services are not adequately addressed. Recommendations as to how community agencies could better serve the needs of women released from prison are also offered.


Facilitating Change: Women in Transition from Prison to the Community

Lorraine Robinson

Reentry is a process of change and transition and presents numerous challenges to the practitioner as well as the female offender. For their reentry to be successful, women must overcome tremendous obstacles, none of which the least is dealing with the change process itself. Assisting female offenders in navigating through the process of making meaningful changes requires skill, knowledge and patience on the part of practitioners. A practitioner’s ability to facilitate successful reentry is predicated on the understanding of the broad social context which has contributed to the rapidly increasing rate of incarcerated females in the United States. The successful practitioner must have the ability to establish trust and rapport with the clients she serves. The importance of a safe, clean and sober environment, access to job training or employment that will assure a living wage, reintegrating with or reestablishing relationships with family (including children), access to community resources including quality medical care and mental health services, treatment for substance abuse, sexual abuse, domestic violence, and peer support are all part of a menu of needs that must be assessed and addressed for each individual female offender reentering the community. Ongoing support networks must be part of an overall strategy if meaningful change is to take place and stay rooted in the lives of the women.


"Not Worse, Just Different"

Meda Chesney-Lind & Konia Freitas

Understanding the concerns of girls helps with appropriate service provision for girls at risk of entering the juvenile justice system, or for those who have entered the system already. The unique experiences of female development coupled with the lack of gender-specific programming places a heavy burden on the practitioners who work with girls. National research indicates that confrontational and negative relationships between workers and girls coupled with the lack of appropriate services and facilities for girls leads to the commonly heard lament that girls are more difficult to work with. This research explores attitudes, issues, and experiences of Hawaii practitioners who work with girls. A series of focus groups and interviews (N=16) were conducted with Hawaii practitioners representing 11 agencies that provide residential treatment, case management, prevention or intervention services to Hawai’i youth. Practitioners generally did not cast working with girls as either difficult or easy, but acknowledged that it was indeed different. Cross gender supervision was difficult terrain for male practitioners to negotiate especially among girls who have had histories of sexual and physical abuse. Low self-esteem and internalizing were cited as the most common issues that workers face when dealing with girls in either coed or gender-specific programs.


"Female Youth in Custody: Social Control Revisited"

Candace Odgers & Raymond Corrado

Despite steadily rising rates of crime among female youth, coupled with growing concerns surrounding the emergence of a new brand of "tough" and "violent" female youth, very little is known about female young offenders in Canada. The present study focused on the risk factors and offending patterns in a sample of the most serious young female offenders in British Columbia. Through extensive one-on-one interviews, file reviews, and risk assessment measures (PCL-YV) comprehensive risk profiles were constructed. Results indicated extremely high levels of dysfunction across a number of social domains. Measures of family conflict, separation and abuse also revealed disturbing trends across the entire sample. Similarly, high levels of hard drug use, such as crack cocaine and heroin, were associated strongly with nonviolent offending patterns, and high incidences of breaches. In addition, the overrepresentation of ethnic minorities, coupled with the exceedingly high proportion of offenses against the administration of youth justice, raised questions regarding the utility of custodial institutions for certain groups of female youth. Moreover, young women appear to be spending significantly longer among of time in custody for minor offenses (breaches) versus the time that they are serving for substantive offenses. Arguably, these findings serve to reaffirm the demands for research in this area that are being voiced throughout the entire youth justice system.




Session 2.2: White-Collar and Corporate Crime

Panel Chair: Henry Pontell



"International Financial Fraud: Trends & Emerging Issues"

Henry Pontell

International financial fraud is a growing menace to the world economy. The increasing globalization of world trade along with the proliferation of advanced technology and computers, currently threatens to outstrip the capacity of enforcement personnel to adequately respond to such matters. The financial, social, and political destabilization costs of such fraud loom larger than ever as we approach the 21st century. This paper examines the nature, magnitude, and various forms of international financial fraud, new forms and patterns of such crime, the enforcement response, and the legal tools needed for enhanced prevention and control.


"White-Collar Crime & Student Financial Aid Programs"

Otto Reyer

Various forms of fraud and abuse have plagued student financial aid programs in the United States since the inception of the programs themselves. This presentation will document the major forms of white-collar crime present in these programs, and document how legal and regulatory changes have both hindered and fostered illegalities. It will focus particularly on the abuses of proprietary educational institutions, and how various control strategies have affected compliance with federal regulations.


"The ‘Other’ Software Piracy: Who Carez About Warez"

Stephen Rosoff

Much attention has been paid in recent years to the problem of international software piracy. Even if huge industry estimates of losses are inflated - as they arguably are - this is unquestionably a very costly and highly profitable crime. Less studied, but potentially even more costly, is the "other" form of software piracy - warez. Warez refers to commercial software that has been pirated and made available to the public via a BBS (bulletin board service) or the Internet. These pirates (many of them middle-class teenage boys - "white-collar delinquents") are known as "crackers" because they crack (that is, deactivate) copy protection or registration schemes used by software manufacturers. While most legal scholars would agree that the dissemination of warez violates copyright laws and principles of intellectual property, the justice system continues to play "catch-up" with the crackers. For example, some convictions under federal wire fraud statutes have been overturned because in most cases no illicit profits were generated, nor did any money even change hands. Thus, in contrast to the lucrative counterfeit software industry, the warez phenomenon has spawned a curious crime wave with multibillion dollar losses to victims but virtually no illegal profits to perpetrators. This paper explores the emergence of the cracker subculture and its mechanics, and considers the prosecutorial difficulties entailed, along with some proposed solutions.


Session 2.3: Gangs, Drugs, & Violence

Panel Chair: Finn-Aage Esbensen


"The Gang/Drug/Homicide Nexus Revisited in the 1990s"

Cheryl Maxson

This presentation will report data on drug use and sales indicators derived from police investigation files of adolescent and adult homicides which occurred in Los Angeles in 1993 and 1994. Patterns of drug indicators will be examined within the context of level of gang involvement (nongang, gang motivated, and member-involved/not gang motivated). These patterns will be contrasted with the gang and drug indicators evident in two earlier homicide studies conducted in Los Angeles in the 1980s.


"Correlates of Drug Use, Drug Sales, and Violent Offending Among a Sample of Gang and Non-Gang Youth"

Dana Peterson, Adrienne Freng, Finn-Aage Esbensen, & Terrance J. Taylor

This paper provides an overview of the nexus between gang membership, drug use, drug selling, and violent offending. Cross-sectional data from an eleven city sample of middle school student is used to examine the relationship between these variables and longitudinal data from a six city sample is used to examine the developmental sequencing of drug use initiation, drug selling, violent offending, and gang membership.


"Typological Diversity Among Gang Members: Drug Use, Drug Sales, and Social-Psychological Characteristics"

David Huizinga

This presentation examines the typological diversity among gang members. Conceivably, not all members join or belong to gangs for the same reasons nor share the same developmental background. Using data from the Denver Youth Survey, the drug use, drug sales, and selected social-psychological characteristics of gang members before, during, and after gang membership are examined to identify types of gang members and to examine the temporal relationship of drug use and drug sales to gang membership.


"The Relationship Between Drug Use and Violence Among Gang Girls"

Jody Miller

There is much debate about gang girls' involvement with drugs and violence within gangs. While quantitative studies show that gang girls participate in these activities at higher rates than non-gang girls and boys, many feminist scholars focus attention away from gang girls' involvement in these seemingly sensational aspects of gang life. Based on in-depth interviews with 48 female gang members in two cities, this paper examines girls' involvement in drug use, sales and violence, with an emphasis on how gender shapes their level and types of involvement.



Session 2.4: Innovate Collaborations to Address Juvenile Delinquency

Panel Chair: Barbara Mendenhall



"Issues in the Implementation of Program & Evaluation Design in a Collaborative Environment: Lessons from the Juvenile Probation-Education SB 1095 Project"

Barbara Mendenhall & Troy Armstrong

This paper describes and analyzes a number of experiences encountered by the statewide evaluation team over the firs eighteen months of troubleshooting and monitoring the implementation -- both programming and evaluation -- of an innovative approach to maintaining multi-problem, high-risk students in specialized, community-based educational settings. The goal of decreasing delinquent behavior, moderating family, school, and substance abuse problems, as well as enhancing educational competency, has been marked by the emergence of a number of unexpected problems and impediments as the project has become fully operational. The authors will discuss the range and nature of problems that have been engaged and offer some insight into creative solutions developed in response to these programming and evaluative difficulties.


"Assessing High Risk Youth’s Psychological Functioning Areas: The Case of the SB 1095 Students"

Bohsui Wu

High-risk youth, such as the SB1095 students, often experience multiple problems. The Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers (POSIT) is used in this study to measure ten areas of students’ psycho social functioning. A confirmatory factor analysis will be used to analyze youths’ projected constellation of psycho social problems. Factors will also be extracted and compared according to five background variables: county, program type, race, age, and gender. Findings about the distribution of specific problem areas across the array of background variables may serve as potential guidelines in the design and implementation of future high-risk youth educational programs.


"Teaching Conflict Resolution Skills and the Reduction of Violence & Conflict in Schools

Francine Williams & Chris Boyd, San Diego Unified School District

The process and outcome of the conflict resolution program used in the San Diego Unified School District will be discussed in this paper. We will present three major components of the District's program: conflict managers (or peacemakers) utilized at the elementary level; peer mediation utilized at the secondary level and classroom lessons through Project Inclusion which is utilized in Kindergarten through grade nine. The discussion will focus on how the program services are delivered, the outcomes, and constraints. The presentation will also show correlation between students who participate in conflict resolution programs and decreased probability of later engaging in behavior that would warrant entrance into the juvenile justice system. The discussion will include a brief overview of suspensions of students (who have not received this training) and their later entrance



Session 2.5: Police Researchers on Police Training: A Cross-Cultural Dialogue

Panel Chair: Vladimir A. Sergevin


"Recent Developments in Crime, Criminal Justice, & Police Training In Russia"

Vladimir A. Sergevnin

This presentation will consider not only the changes in Post-Soviet Law Enforcement in Russia but also will give an understanding of the political and economical environment of the Russia’s transition from Soviet communism to Western capitalism through wild "criminalism". Russian Law Enforcement agencies, security organs, and intelligence services, far from being reliable instruments in the fight against organized crime and corruption, are institutionally part of the problem, due not only to their co-optation and penetration by criminal elements, but to their own absence of a legal bureaucratic culture and their use of crime as an instrument of state policy. Author makes a special attention to current criminal crusade to power in Russia, to selective fight against crime from the Government, torture and corruption in Law Enforcement agencies. The last section of the presentation contains suggestions departments may follow by modifying the policies in training and personnel area.


"Paint Ball as Experimental Police Training for Law Enforcement Officers"

Diana Zadorskaya

This presentation will be about the new method of firearms training for the recruits. This method was recently implemented in Police Training Institute, University of Illinois. First will be explained the backgrounds of paint ball as entertainment game and sport. Then the author will tell about the reasons of implementing transformed version of paint ball in firearms police training through inventing scenarios taken from real incidents occurred in USA. Presenter will tell about research, conducted in the Institute, concerning the statistic of distance in shooting confrontation between police officers and criminals and its influence on changing training methodology in the Institute. The last part of the presentation contains information about possible using of paint ball as training programs in another Institutions.


"Acquisition of Marksmanship & Gun Handling Skills Through Police Academy Training" &emdash; Michael T. Charles & Anne G. Copay, University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana

A study was undertaken at the Police Training Institute at the University of Illinois, beginning in 1995, and ending in 1997, to evaluate the marksmanship and gun handling skills that police recruits learn through the basic firearms course at the Institute. The skills of 216 inexperienced shooters (185 men and 31 women) were measured before and after the basic law enforcement firearms course. The marksmanship test consisted in shooting 14 rounds from a distance of 15 yards (for a maximum of 140 points). The gun-handling test consisted in loading the handgun, unloading the handgun, and clearing a type 3 (double-feed) malfunction. The marksmanship scores significantly improved after the firearms course (from 43.46 to 106.86 points) but the women’s scores were significantly lower than the men’s scores both before and after the course. Recruits significantly reduced the time needed to load the weapon (from 27.17 to 9.12 seconds), to unload the weapon (from 15.48 to 3.84 seconds), and to clear the malfunction (from 30.13 to 11.05 seconds) but women took more time than men to clear the malfunction. The study clearly demonstrated that PTI students significantly improved their marksmanship and gun handling skills as a result of the firearms course. The recruits learned to perform the basic gun handling tasks quickly and safely: it took them only a few seconds to load, unload, and clear a malfunction. The recruits hit the target with 94.79% of their bullets and they obtained 76.33% of the maximum target score.



Session 3.1: Blueprints Programs

Panel Chair: Sharon Mihalic


Introduction to Blueprints for Violence Prevention

Delbert Elliott

Blueprints for Violence Prevention have become a core set of programs in a national violence prevention initiative. This set of ten programs has undergone rigorous evaluations and proven to be effective, providing a standard for quality programming. The standard for program effectiveness and a brief description of the programs will be given. Recent efforts, funded by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, to replicate these programs nationwide will also be described.


"Big Brothers Big Sisters of America"

Jerry Lapham

Big Brothers Big Sisters (BBBS) is a service based on a one-to-one relationship between an adult volunteer and a child at risk. Volunteers serve as friends, mentors and role models, helping children gain self-confidence. The volunteer "Bigs" encourage "Littles" to realize their potential and see themselves as having happy and successful futures. Each volunteer commits to spending a few hours a week with their "Little." Professional case-managers provide screening, matching, supervision and support to the volunteer, child, and parent. A recent study examined the effect of BBBS mentoring on youth and found that compared to their peers, Little Brothers and Sisters were 46% less likely to start using drugs and 27% less likely to start drinking; 52% less likely to skip a day of school and 37% less likely to skip a class; one-third less likely to hit someone; and more trusting of their parents or guardians, less likely to lie to them, and felt more supported and less criticized by their peers and friends.


"Functional Family Therapy"

Jim Alexander

Functional Family Therapy provides a mature clinical model for the effective treatment of difficult youthful offenders. Successful multisite implementation of a Blueprints intervention model requires, as a first step, a clearly described intervention model that includes three major trajectories: (1) A strong science base with research on the processes and outcomes of intervention, coupled with ongoing data input and evaluation mechanisms; (2) A clinically rich intervention model presented in a language applicable in a variety of intervention contexts by diverse professionals; and (3) An established training philosophy and set of techniques that transcend particular regions, treatment populations, and disciplines. This presentation will describe briefly these components, and provide additional written and reference materials for attendees.


"Cost-Benefits of Prevention Programs"

Steve Aos

This paper discusses work recently completed for the Washington State Legislature. For a wide range of programs&emdash;from prevention programs designed for young children to correctional programs for juvenile and adult offenders&emdash;the paper examines whether a program’s benefits are likely to outweigh its costs. The estimates are based on a common methodological approach, allowing an "apples-to-apples" comparison of the economics of programs aimed at very different age groups. This approach is similar to a financial analysis an investment advisor might use to study rates of return on mutual funds, bonds, real estate, or other diverse investments. The focus is on the comparative economic bottom line. The analysis considers two crime reduction benefits: those accruing to taxpayers and those accruing to crime victims. Among other uses, this information can assist decision-makers in allocating scarce public resources.



Session 3.2: Community-Based Sanctions

Panel Chair: Martha-Elin Blomquist


"The Role of Social Control in Probationer Compliance with the Law: Community Dis-/organization as a Source for Understanding"

Joe Allen

Over 4.1 million, or 70%, of the 5.9 million adults under correctional supervision in the United States are being housed in the community . The importance of public safety and the successful re-/integration of offenders in the community become paramount when one considers that 60% of the 1.5 million correctional population increase from 1990-1998 can be attributed to those on probation or parole. This study seeks to (1) determine the effects of formal and informal social control on the compliance of probationers with the law, and (2) explore the mitigating and exacerbating influences of community organization and disorganization on these effects. Using risk/needs assessments of Hawaii probationers (N=29,000) from 1986-1998 and available census tract data, this study considers these components as a basis for understanding probationer recidivism and if or how success or failure on probation is inextricably tied to the community context of the individual.


"Putting ‘Community’ in Community-Based Corrections"

Martha-Elin Blomquist

Many view crime as a "community destroying" phenomenon. In this paper, I will explore the possibility, instead, that crime, and particularly responses to crime, could be bases for the making and the strengthening of communities. Alternatives to the traditional adversarial, state monopoly model of the criminal process, such as restorative justice (Van Ness & Strong 1997, Umbreit 1985) and community justice (Clear & Karp 1999) are predicated on assumptions about the existence and strengths of communities. These alternatives show how communities can use crime to improve the quality of living by treating crime victims and perpetrators as community members whose hurts and problems call for involvement and investment by fellow community residents. Such involvement and investment can promote a web of relationships, commitments, and reciprocal prosperity that benefits individuals as well as the collectivity.


"Partnerships with Law Enforcement: Community Policing"

James Diego Vigil

Recent strategies to address crime in low-income areas has focused on community-level institutions. Working with residents and other representatives of agencies and institutions, the L.A. Sheriff's Department has instituted a training program to equip officers with the skill and knowledge to help implement new practices that would help control crime in various neighborhoods. Among the new approaches in forming police-community partnerships are neighborhood revitalization, crime abatement statues, youth/gang violence initiatives, school violence strategies, responses to family violence, and managing community events. The integration of these new strategies with earlier culturally sensitive practices has helped build bridges between law enforcement and the community in taking a problem-solving approach to crime.



Session 3.3: Surviving Graduate School

Panel Chair: Miki Vohryzedk-Bolden


"The Influence of Race & Gender on One’s Graduate School Experience"

Clarice Bailey

I began graduate school in 1989 armed with a bachelor’s and lots of determination. By-passing the master’s, I entered the Ph.D. program in Public Administration and Policy at Portland State University with the understanding that, if I finished, I would be the first African American female to have done so. Now, ten years later, with a June 2000 graduation in view, I still will be the first African American female to graduate from this program. The reality of being the "first" or the "only" gas has just been the tip of the iceberg.


"Charting a Course Through Graduate School"

Kim Rossmo

Graduate school provides many opportunities amongst its numerous challenges. Research, grades, conferences, publishing, special projects, field work, and teaching experience all compete with the need for funding, scholarships, grants, and jobs. This presentation will discuss some of the factors criminology students may want to consider when charting an optimal path through a Ph.D. program, including the importance of knowing where you want to end up, how to develop an academic reputation, the ability to say "no," networking, the need to avoid the teaching assistant trap, and the importance of having fun.



Session 3.4: Delinquency Prevention Programs

Panel Chair: Jim Embree


"The Comprehensive Strategy"

Jim Embree

The Comprehensive Strategy is a process developed by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention that provides communities with a framework for preventing delinquency, intervening in early delinquent behavior, and responding to serious, violent, and chronic offenders. OJJDP has contracted with the National Council on Crime and Delinquency to provide extensive training to seven states in implementing the Comprehensive Strategy. The training is a 14-month process that involves representation from the total community and results in the development of a five-year Strategic Plan to guide the community in future efforts. The Comprehensive Strategy is based on a "risk-focused" prevention model and 15 years of extensive research cities, Rochester, N.Y., Denver, CO, and Pittsburgh, PA. It is outcome based and community directed with evaluation components built in at every level.


"Gang Enforcement in Detroit: An Evaluation of the Anti-Gang Initiative"

Tim Bynum, & Sean Varano

In 1997, the COPS Office funded 15 cities to conduct innovative strategies to address gangs in their jurisdiction. Under this initiative, the Detroit Police Department implemented a comprehensive program involving a partnership with the Department of Corrections (probation), the prosecutor’s office, and schools. A specialized unit was created to enhance gang enforcement in two target precincts. At the core of this approach was an intensive aggressive enforcement strategy emphasizing frequent stops and increased order maintenance policing. This paper reports on the evaluation of this intervention. The evaluation approach utilized review of police reports, structured interviews, and observations. A third precinct similar in size, demographics, and level of gang activity was used for comparison purposes. Findings suggested that the intervention might have been successful in reducing gang-related incidents during the project period. During the intervention period gun crimes declined substantially in the target precincts but rose in the comparison precinct and citywide. However, after the intervention was concluded these offenses increased. Suggestions for maintaining effects are explored.


"Hollenbeck Gun Project

Peter Greenwood

RAND is working with a number of criminal justice and community-based agencies to develop and test strategies for reducing youth and gang-related gun violence in Los Angeles County. This two-year project was begun in March 1998 with funding from the National Institute of Justice and draws upon lessons learned from previous interventions in Los Angeles and other cities, such as CLEAR, the Boston Gun Project, and Project EXILE. This presentation will describe the characteristics of the gangs and gang conflict in the target area, the deliberations of the Working Group, and the proposed intervention 




Session 3.5: Justice for Diverse Populations

Panel Chair: Julia Sudbury


"The Black Child-Saving Movement: Preliminary Findings from a Revisionist Social History"

Geoffrey K. Ward

My dissertation research is concerned with the role of black women's organizations in the child-saving movement. Using archival documents and other historical data I find that a restorative model of juvenile justice administration emerged and had some success in the south, thanks in large part to the work of black women's clubs and organizations. The research then considers the transformation of the black child saving movement after the great migration and, finally, a case study of racial disparity and the organization of decision making in a Michigan juvenile "court community. I close by reconsidering Barry Feld's recent social history of racial inequality in the administration of juvenile justice and his familiar recommendation to abolish the juvenile court. My research suggests that improvements in the administration of juvenile justice will likely be found in the community before the similarly failing adult justice system.


"Race, Gender, & Resistance Inside the Global Prison"

Julia Sudbury

This paper deploys the traveling tales of women of color "mules" to interrupt popular, academic and official discourses of gender, race and penalty. Studies of women in prison tend to focus in at the local or national level and to minimize issues of border-crossing and the globalization of capital. While sociologists and cultural studies scholars have begun to study the new cultural and political formations forged in movements of capital, communication and peoples, scant attention has been paid to global technologies and ideologies of penalty. In this paper, I argue that it is essential for criminologists to address the nexus formed by repressive state machineries and transnational corporate capital. I argue that the bodies of women of color are central to the enforcement of "law and order" regimes which cross national borders via the common programs of politicians and the profits of multinational corporations. As survivors of the feminization of poverty under IMF regimes and as victims of an international U.S.-led "war on drugs", women of color drug couriers become the raw material which allows the expanding profits of a multinational prison industry. Their status as "offenders" against the law and the constant travel involved in their life stories mean that women of color detained for drug trafficking become the ultimate border-crossers, and pay a high price in personal freedom and loss for this transgression. Drawing on interviews with Black British and foreign national women at three British prisons, this paper places women's narratives at the center of theorizing the global prison. I argue that we need to pay attention to the experiences of women at the brunt of globalized regimes of social control in order to open up oppositional collaborations, both in and outside of spaces of transcarceration.


Identity and Multiple Marginalization of Navajo Gang Members

Barbara Mendenhall

This paper draws upon findings that were generated by a project funded in 1995 by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, United States Department of Justice, to the Judicial Branch of the Navajo Nation to study youth gangs on the Navajo Nation. In the study report (currently in the final stages of preparation), the research team profiles a "snowball sample" of 103 Navajo gang or crew members (small, informal groups of 15 or less who associate to party or create graffiti), describes the sociocultural settings in which they live, explores the activities of Navajo gang and crew members, and seeks to understand those reasons and factors underlying the emergence of youth gangs in this setting. In this paper I will focus upon factors that shape self and group identity of the Navajo Gang Study respondents, including: vocational interests, especially popular youth culture; family relationships; community involvement; linkage with peers; and school ties. These factors will be tied to the assertion that faulty socialization in these areas leads to a condition of multiple marginality. Disruption of conventional bonding in these areas is a point of reference in addressing the key question of "why kids join gangs." The focus in this paper will include an exploration of theoretical formulations concerning identification and marginality.



Session 4.1: Restorative Justice

Panel Chair: Charles Tracy


"Shaming Theory, Reintegrative Shaming, & Restorative Justice"

George D. Muedeking

The restorative justice movement uses victim-offender confrontation that--by including public confession, apology, and accountability--implies shame. This discussion examines shaming theory as applied to socialization, reviews the context of shaming in Braithwaite's theory of reintegrative shaming, and looks at some examples of recent judicial uses of public shaming. A typology that is based on social context and characteristics of the offender and the offense, and that specifies the utility of shaming for deterrent purposes and applicability to restorative justice, will be offered.


"Forgiveness, Restorative Justice, & Crime"

Richard D. Clark

Anecdotal evidence from victim/offender conferences has suggested that victims offer forgiveness. However, research on forgiveness describes a process that is difficult and often long term in nature. A review of the literature on forgiveness as an component of victim/offender mediation will be discussed, with suggestions as to the viability of forgiveness for the restorative justice framework.


"Arbitration & the Grievance Process: Exploring New Paradigms in Restorative Justice"

Robert W. Taylor

Over ninety percent of grievance cases within criminal justice agencies involve arbitration of disciplinary action against a police or correctional officer. Restorative justice concepts are applicable to the grievance process and have the potential to provide guidelines for arbitration without binding legal documents, the threat of impending civil suit litigation, or union retaliation. This discussion addresses a paradigm shift away from punishment toward one of equity and balance for employee dispute resolution. 


"Problematizing Restorative Justice"

Giselle Rosario

A discussion of the claims of restorative justice advocates and critical assessment of whether these claims are justified by empirical evidence. Focus is on British and European experiences, which include outcomes of high participant satisfaction, empowerment, healing, and transformation. These and other significant results need to be made problematic by the scholarly community so the extent that restorative justice practices can substantiate their effects can be determined.



Session 4.2: Theoretical Criminology: Perspectives on Various Crime

Panel Chair: Neil Boyd



"Against the Sexual Assault of Animals"

Piers Beirne

This papers introduces a view of bestiality which differs radically from both the anthropocentrism enshrined in the dogma of Judaeo Christianity and also from the pseudo-liberal stance of tolerance fashionable today. It suggests, simply, that bestiality should be understood as sexual assault. In so doing the paper offers evidence about the prevalence of the sexual assault of animals, which appears chiefly in three contexts: psychiatric studies, sexological surveys, and historical studies of court records. 


"A Theoretical Model of Transgenerational Violence & Implications for Interventions"

Mariah Fillers

The growing number of offenses against children suffered at the hands of their parents and/or guardians requires investigation and indicates the need for programs and interventions that could possibly curb this cycle of violence. This article suggests a possible model of the causes and subsequent effects of transgenerational violence, and then further examines these links. Of the studies that have been devoted to this topic, only a handful discuss possible remedies. In the past, the mistake has been to treat all abusers in a relatively similar manner. This problem is twofold in that abusers become abusive for different reasons and therefore need to be treated accordingly, and programs need to be developed for the victims of transgenerational violence so that they do not become abusers and thus continue the cycle of violence.


"The Violent Sex: Why Rapists & Murderers are Almost Always Male"

Neil Boyd

This paper argues that the role of biology has been underestimated in assessment of the etiology of male violence. The author considers the realms of evolutionary history, sex differences in abilities and temperaments, the evidence in favor of a genetic basis for violence, and the hormone testosterone, before coming to the conclusions that men, and some men particularly, are environmentally- and biologically-at risk. Although answers to the problems of male violence are to be found in environmental contexts, we cannot continue to misdiagnose violence as almost wholly a function of environment constraints. The author closes with five suggestions for the reduction of male violence.


"Stalking Victims"

Lora Zulijani

The research on stalking victims over the last decade has been largely ignored in the academic literature. In fact the vast majority of research on stalking have focused on the stalking offenders who have been drawn primarily from clinical populations. To overcome the limitations of past research, this paper uses data from twenty interviews of male and female stalking victims who have been stalked from previous or present intimate partners. Exploratory data on the incidence of intimate violence, the processes, events and circumstances that lead up to there victims being stalked are discussed. By uncovering the patterns of violence, it can assist other researchers and policy makers in not only treating the victims but also in preventative interventions for the stalkers. 


"Trap Theory & Its Applications: Solutions to Eliminate Corruption and Other Cooperative Crimes"

Jim Wang

Corruption, or the misuse of public power for private ends, is widespread. As long as the probability of detection is less than unity, it may occur. This paper proposes a method of inducing any party to corruption or illegal transactions to voluntarily reveal the corruption or illegal agreement, thus eliminating corruption and other illegal transactions. The method is nothing but some "traps". For illegal transactions, we allow one party in a transaction to keep all benefits or values of the agreement for both sides if that party informs authorities of the transaction, while the other party not only forfeits all the gains but also receives extra penalties. For example, someone paying a bribe can retain the benefits of the bribe and also have the amount of the bribe back from the recipient if he reports to authorities. The advantage of the "trap theory" is extraordinary. Potential bribe-takers would realize that ultimately they would be caught and punished, then there would be no incentive to engage in the initial bribery agreement.



Session 4.4: Corrections

Panel Chair: Doug White


"Self-Identity: A Comparison of Male & Female Prison Inmates"

Carrie B. Oser

Inmate self-identify is analyzed for two purposes: to provide descriptive information and to examine the correlation between dimensions of self-identity (operationalized) as personality traits, self-esteem and sensation seeking) and key variables associated with the criminal/incarceration experience (including socio-demographics, prison program participation, criminal history, and external contact) while comparing differences related to gender. This study will add to the previous controversial research on the relationship between self-esteem and crime as well as help to identify a gendered criminal personality profile. Date from male (N=83) and female (N=61) inmates in two medium security Kentucky prisons were examined in order to determine the nature of self-identity among an incarcerated populations as well as the correlates of this identity.


"Probation/Parole Arming Issues: A 20-Year Review"

Lesley Blacher

Arming probation/parole officers is a contentious issue and has divided many practitioners within the correctional community for the last 20 years. The dangerous field operations that more and more probation officers are confronting have intensified safety concerns prompting some agencies to arm their personnel. The paucity of literature concerning arming probation/parole officers has provided little insight with which to guide agencies that must grapple with this question. What has been documented is the considerable interest among officers in having the option to arm themselves, given heightened concerns for officer safety.


"Outcomes for Inmates: Redirecting the Privatized Prison Profit Motive"

Doug White

Without much fanfare or effective opposition, privatized correctional facilities are becoming more and more commonplace in America. Much has been said concerning this trend; the benefits and weaknesses are well-known. As currently conceptualized, the privatized correctional facility debate is skipping over fundamental questions. An alternative way to frame the debate would be to focus attention on the actual outcomes

for each inmate incarcerated and, toward that end, radically alter the monetary incentives offered to the private contractors. An example of such a plan is offered as a possible prototype and as a catalyst to further reforms.


"Assessing the Attitudes of Adult Probation Officers Towards Community-Based Corrections"

Michael Bradford

Community-based corrections have been said to provide an alternative to costly incarceration. Their success has been hindered however due to a lack of clearly defined objectives and target populations. A survey was conducted of adult probation officers to assess their attitudes toward these sanctions and their potential. The results indicate strong support for the use of community-based corrections as prison diversion programs.



Session 5.1: Juvenile Justice

Panel Chair: Angel Ilarraza



"Juvenile Justice: Perspectives on Diversity in the New Milennium"

Alida V. Merlo & Peter J. Benekos

Abstract unavailable


"Privatization Across the Spectrum: Is Juvenile Justice a Growth Industry"

Deborah Plechner & Justin Galt

The current state of the juvenile justice system reflects past legislative reform efforts aimed at improving the status of young offenders and current punitive shifts in criminal and juvenile justice policy, and amounts to a situation of "criminological triage" (Feld, 1999). This paper examines the trend of privatization across the spectrum of possible outcomes for juvenile offenders that has resulted from this situation of triage. These outcomes range from those at the "soft-end", where children are diverted into a variety of privatized settings including group homes, substance abuse treatment centers and psychiatric hospitals, as opposed to those at the "hard-end" of the system, where young offenders may end up serving sentences in detention centers, training schools, boot camps, or adult jails and prisons. We draw on existing literature related to the private ownership and management of placement and detention settings in an attempt to describe their historical growth, the conditions of confinement, and the life outcomes for children in these various settings. We also examine debates surrounding the privatization of adult corrections to add to our understanding of the consequences of the privatization of juvenile corrections. In closing, the theoretical and policy implications of privatization will be discussed, including the warning that the extent of privatization in the juvenile justice system may be evidence of the dire reality of "crime control as industry" (Christie, 1993).


"Diversity in Design: Kailana’s Experimental Model"

Mathew Claybaugh

Providers of youth services in the state of Hawai`i have perennially reported an overrepresentation of Hawaiian and other pacific island youth in their programs. State agencies such as the Department of Health, Office of Youth Services and the Judiciary have implored providers to provide culturally appropriate programming for youth served. Although most service providers in the state have incorporated multicultural training and other offerings designed to increase cultural sensitivity and staff awareness of diversity issues program models remain mired in mainland convention. The Kailana (Calm Seas) program of Marimed Foundation has integrated the culture of island peoples into its program culture and designed experiential therapy in line with those values. Like much of the Pacific region Hawai`i has a rich voyaging heritage conceived in ancient times and perpetuated by contemporary seafarers. Kailana continues this unique history with court referred adolescents in its residential homes and aboard the 156 ft. tall ship TOLE MOUR. The experiential design of the program blends seafaring traditions with the contemporary treatment needs of adolescents. This paper will discuss Kailana’s voyaging culture and experiential model exploring how service providers can use concepts of diversity to drive the design process.


"The Relationship Between School Discipline & Adolescent Behaviors"

Jill Heiser & Hannah K. Knudsen

In this investigation, several indicators of school rules and disciplinary measures were examined to determine their influence on adolescent behaviors. Some of these behaviors include: cigarette use, alcohol use, illicit substance use, delinquency, academic achievement, and school involvement. Data were obtained from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (or ADD Health). The sample for this analysis included adolescents from 80 high schools and their respective feeder schools. Additionally, the administrators from these schools were interviewed to obtain school-level data. Structural equation models that include background characteristics and control variables were conceptualized and empirically tested using LISREL 8.3. Contrary to the hypotheses, there was little or no relationship between positive or negative, between school-level social control, and adolescent behaviors.




Session 5.2: Crime Mapping & Analysis

Panel Chair: D. Kim Rossmo



"Mapping Criminal Opportunity Patches"

P. Jeffrey Brantingham, Paul J. Brantingham, & Patricia L. Brantingham

The standard model of the criminal event requires the convergence of a motivated offender with a target at a discrete location in time and space in a situation from which an effective guardian is absent. Crime mapping has typically focused of the distribution of crimes, the distribution of offenders, and to a lesser degree, the distribution of guardians. Relatively little attention has been paid to the spatio-temporal distributions of targets for crime. In this paper we expand on the notion of target distributions into patches of criminal opportunities &emdash; an idea derived from modern ecology- and explore ways in which mapping such patches can help us understand the development of crime attractors, crime generators, and high risk crime displacement locations.


"Crime in Time &emdash; 3D"

Terry Whin-Yates

Abstract unavailable.


"A Wrongful Murder Conviction: The Relevance of Geographic Profiling"

Neil Boyd & D. Kim Rossmo

In 1969 a 16-year-old teenager named David Milgaard was arrested for the brutal sex murder of Gail Miller, a Saskatoon nursing aide. He was convicted and spent 23 years in prison before being released after a Supreme Court of Canada review of the case. Key to the court’s decision was the emergence of an alternative suspect &emdash; Larry Fisher, a serial rapist who preyed on women at the same time and in the same neighborhood of the murder. DNA testing eventually led to the November 1999 conviction of Fisher for Miller’s murder. Part of the case review involved a comparison of Milgaard’s and Fisher’s spatial patterns with the 1969 murder locations. A synopsis of the case, its geographic profile, and maps of the relevant crime sites will be discussed and analyzed.


"Understanding Clustering of Homicide Cases Within a General Violent Crime Population: Substantive & Methodological Considerations"

Katrina Baum & Guy Enosh

Data was collected from a police department in a large, northeastern city in the United States. Incident data for UCR codes "111" (homicide by gun) and "411" (aggravated assault by gun) were analyzed for a six-month period from July 1 to December 30, 1997. This sample yielded 1,200 cases of violent crime from which to model the spatial clustering of homicides within the general population of gun perpetrated violent crime using the K-function statistical procedure. Logistic regression models were used to interpret the occurrence of clustering as influenced by structural (i.e., socioeconomic) variables, measured by block-level U.S. Census data. Substantive and methodological implications are discussed.


"Pool Halls and Crime: A Spatial Analysis of Calls for Police Service in Vancouver, British Columbia"

Patricia Brantingham, Bryan Kinney, & Chris Giles

The present paper explores the analytical potential of "Pattern Theory," as developed by Brantingham & Brantingham, to explore the spatial distribution of calls for police service in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. As a theoretical framework, Pattern Theory is seen as appropriate for such a discussion for two main reasons. Firstly, pattern theory considers crime as a complex event, or process, that involves, among others, a spatial dimension. Secondly, this theoretical framework provides a host of practical, yet immediate, linkages between empirical study and urban planning. Such potential is discussed in the context of a preliminary investigation of the relationship between the location of pool halls and calls for police service in various neighborhoods of Vancouver. Using the GIS software of the Crime Prevention and Analysis Laboratory (CPAL) at Simon Fraser University, this study provides a tentative ‘first look’ at maps representing a variety of calls for police service and pool halls as a specific land use.



Session 5.3: Crime & Punishment in Hawaii

Panel Chair: Lisa Pasko


"Technical Violations of Parole & Prison Crowding in Hawaii"

Janet Davidson-Coronado

For the past 2 decades the prison population in Hawaii has grown at a steady rate. For example, the prison population numbered roughly 500 in 1977 and was roughly 4700 in 1999. At the same time, however, average sentence lengths have remained relatively stable and the crime rates have been dropping. Nonetheless, the prison population in Hawaii continues to grow at a rate above most other states. As a direct result of this crowding, we are now sending a quarter of our inmates to privately run correctional facilities on the mainland. Although these figures speak volumes about the sheer magnitude of the prison crisis in Hawaii, little academic work has focused on the causes of crowding in this state. This paper explores the relationship between technical violators of parole and prison crowding. The numbers of technical violators of parole have risen dramatically over the past 25 years. As such, these types of prison entries are essentially 'back door' entrances that allow for a continued and steady flow of entrances through the 'front door'. The result: a continually increasing population that the sate is not able to handle.



"Preliminary Analysis of Homicide in Hawaii, 19800-1998"

Eduardo Duarte

Using information reported as part of the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Uniform Crime Reports, the author investigates the phenomena of homicide in the State of Hawaii from 1980-1997. Data in regards to victims, offenders, (victim n=865, offender n» 900), weapons utilized in the commission of a homicide, victim-offender relationships, and the circumstances of homicide incidents is summarized. In general it is found that state homicide rates occur at substantially lower levels than for the nation as a whole across a wide variety of indicators. Most notably, male victimization rates are particularly low. On the other hand there is a statistically significant relation between domestic violence related homicides and the gender of victims controlling for a number of other variables. In conclusion the author advances several possible explanations for the relatively low levels of homicide in the state.


"Whose Line is it, Anyway? A Cultural Contradiction of Filipino Defendants in Hawaii’s Courts"

Arlie Tagayuna

Although many Filipino migrants are considered to be linguistically advantageous compared to other immigrants on their representation in judicial system, it is still doubtless to say that by their subjection to much complicated court interchanged diverts justice against them. The question and answer portion (Q/A) within courtroom examination presents an unfamiliar processes among newly arrived Filipinos. They are compounded with difficulties in communicating if question and answers are conducted primarily in English. This paper attempts to highlight some contradictions within culture and communication that many Filipino immigrants experience in Hawaii Courts. A videotaped court proceeding of a celebrated case is analyzed using conversational analysis.


"Substance Abuse in Hawaii (1998)

Andrew Ovenden, John Gartrell & D. William Wood

Hawaii has a long, undistinguished history of high levels of substance abuse, particularly abuse of legal drugs such as alcohol, and "soft" but illegal drugs such as marijuana. Analysis of a 1998 statewide adult population household survey shows a continuing increase in the use of crystal methamphetamine during the 1990's, and a decrease in the use of cocaine. Crystal Meth has become the "hard" drug of choice. The overall prevalence of substance use appears to have remained relatively stable in urban areas such as Honolulu, while substance use appears to have increased in rural areas. The prevalence of substance abuse is substantially higher in the non-urban counties outside Honolulu (Oahu). There is also wide variation in substance abuse within the state by religion, family structure, ethnicity, gender, age and socioeconomic status. For example, Caucasians and respondents of Japanese descent share similar levels of socioeconomic status. Yet Caucasians report considerably higher levels of substance abuse than do those of Japanese ancestry. A parallel relationship exists between native Hawaiians and Filipinos. Both ethnic groups share relatively low socioeconomic status, and Hawaiians have substantially higher levels of substance abuse compared to Filipinos.


"Aina Under the Influence: The Criminalization of Alcohol in Nineteenth-Century Hawai’i"

Marilyn Brown

The American colonial project in nineteenth-century Hawai’i shows how legal forms develop in the context of diverse cultural, political, and economic interests. This paper links moral panics over the use of alcohol by both Natives and lower-class whites to the adoption of parallel legal codes prohibiting drinking by Native Hawaiians but not by whites. These processes and the eventual criminalization of Hawaiian drinking played an important role in legitimating the subordination of native Hawaiians.




Session 5.4: Domestic Violence: Research Issues

Panel Chair: Lynn Newhart


"Risk, Fear, Harm: Immigrant Women’s Perception of the Policing Solution to Woman Abuse"

Sandra Wachholz

Over the last two decades in Canada, police intervention in woman abuse cases has become one of the primary responses to this form of violence against women. As a review of the literature reveals, however, very few studies have sought to examine women's perceptions of the 'policing solution' to women, and only a handful have explored the views of immigrant women. This is an unfortunate hiatus as studies indicate that criminal justice intervention in woman abuse cases can often bring in tow a multitude of harms to women who are socially and economically marginalized. As a step towards addressing this hiatus, this article reports on the perceptions held by forty-eight immigrant women about the 'policing solution' to women. The data were generated from focus group interviews that occurred in New Brunswick in the spring of 1997. Many of the women indicated that they held a number of fears about police intervention in woman abuse cases and they identified a myriad of forms of harm that could and often does occur pursuant to police involvement in such situations given immigrant women's socioeconomic vulnerability. The concerns and feelings that women expressed about police intervention mirror, at some level, many of the emotional responses and dynamics that arise for women when they experience woman abuse.


"Domestic Violence Recidivism"

Carrie Blades

Utilizing a random sample of 455 domestic violence cases processed through the Sacramento County District Attorney's Office during the period July 1, 1995 to June 30, 1996, this paper analyzes the impact of Arrest, Prosecution, completion of a Batterer's Treatment Program, and "Stake in Conformity" on domestic violence recidivism. Recidivism was defined as a subsequent arrest for domestic violence prior to September 1, 1998. The independent variables used for this analysis were: the presence of prior domestic violence arrest; the decision to prosecute versus case rejection/dismissal; the completion of a Batterer's Treatment Program or other counseling program, and Employment and Marital Statuses(i.e. the stake-in-conformity indicators). The results of logistic regression analysis reveal that prior domestic violence arrest is significantly associated with subsequent domestic violence arrest but no significant effect of the other measures. Defendant age and sex, however, were shown to significantly affect domestic violence recidivism. Bivariate analysis showed marginal significance of case disposition, completion of treatment programs, and stake-in-conformity statuses on subsequent domestic violence. A discussion of some of the problems associated with research on criminal court processing is included.


 "Til Death Us Do Part: Partner Homicide Among Whites, Blacks, and Latinos in Chicago, 1965-1995"

Lynn Newhart & Marie Roman

The focus of this study is to present a statistical analysis of partner homicide data drawn from the Chicago homicide data set. The data set reports information about police-determined homicides over a thirty-year period. Results indicate that out of the approximate 23,000 homicides that occurred over the thirty-year period, 920 were spouse-related. Four hundred and ninety-two husbands murdered their wives, and four hundred twenty-eight wives killed their husbands. Spousal homicide occurred most frequently among blacks, and least frequently among Latinos (686 versus 60, respectively). Frequency for whites was 170. The data also indicate that the killings occurred most frequently between 6:30 p.m. and 2:30 a.m. An examination of weapon used suggests that non-automatic handguns were overwhelmingly the weapon of choice, followed by knives. The paper concludes by exploring the impact of the subculture of violence on racial and ethnic groups.


 "Sticks & Stones: Can Break My Bones, Can Feminism Protect Me? A Feminist Critique of the Feminist Critique of the Conflict Tactics Scale" Feminism Protect Me"

Alan D. Brown & Katherine E. Latta

It has been more than 20 years since Straus tried to convince academics and practitioners alike that there was a symmetrical, rather than asymmetrical, relationship between gender and intimate partner violence with his Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS). He writes "Violence between husband and wife is far from a one way street. The old cartoons of wife chasing the husband with a rolling pin or throwing pots and pans are closer to reality than most (especially those with feminist sympathies)realize." (Straus 1977/78:447-448). Perhaps the most glaring problem with this short excerpt is that it universalizes two concepts around which there is little or no consensus: what it means to be either husband or wife and what defines the contours of "feminist". Too often the "feminist" response to such models has been to argue against this essentialism without offering any substantive theoretical or methodological alternative. Part of this problematic response may stem from the general masculinist bias of studies of violence or perhaps the oft cited "stag" effect in criminal justice-- an inability within our discipline to have messy categories of both perpetrator and victim when dealing with issues of gender. The goal of this paper then, is to move the CTS beyond a static analysis of individual acts separated from a larger context of social action, and to offer a reconceptualization of the so-called "feminist" response to the CTS. Using Giddens' notion of structured action to reconceptualize both feminism and family violence as an enactment between socio-institutional structure and social-psychological agency, we offer a theoretical and methodological "middle-ground" to an often polemical and policy impeding debate.




Session 6.1: Community Policing

Panel Chair: Terrence J. Taylor


"Community Policing, the COPPS Paradigm, and the Challenges to Civil Liberties"

Ronald Boostrom & Natalie Pearl

This paper will review the rise of community policing as anew (or a return to an old, depending on perspective) direction for policing. The COPPS paradigm will be analyzed to discern the directives it gives police agencies for training, for resource allocation, and for policy. Backlash against some of these directives because of their impact on possible endangerment of civil liberties for certain groups in our society will be discussed. Examples of how this will raise critical issues for the future, not generally dealt with in training and advocacy for community policing within departments adopting this paradigm will also be discussed.


"Whatever Happened to Higher Education in Policing?" A reexamination of College Requirements for Police Selection"

Roy Roberg

From serious discussions and research regarding the need for college educated police in the late 1960s and early 1970s, the decade of the 1990s has been stagnant of such discussion and research. Police organizational changes, societal changes, and technological changes all provide support for a re-examination of a college degree requirement for initial selection purposes.


"COMPSTAT: Pathways from an Inquisition to a Partnership"

Katrina Baum

This papers identifies the themes that emerged from an ethnographic study of the COMPSTAT process in a large, northeastern city in the United States. COMPSTAT< or computer driven crime statistics, is a program that originated in New York City under Commissioner William J. Bratton. It has since been attributed to the dramatic drop in violent crime in New York City, and many cities are consequently now implementing this process in one share or form. Themes that emerged from this study are (1) culture; (2) accountability; (3) specific problems; (4) opportunity for information sharing: (5) high-level analysis; and (6) policy reinforcement. The process of implementing COMPSTAT In a law enforcement agency is discussed.


 "A Multisite Three-Wave Panel Study of Adolescent Attitudes Towards the Police"

Terrence J. Taylor, L. Thomas Winfree, Jr., & Finn-Aage Esbensen

While there is a relative paucity of studies examining the attitudes of juveniles toward the police, the extant literature suggests significant gender and race effects, similar to those reported using adult samples. For this paper, we examine the influence of delinquency and arrest on juveniles’ attitudes toward the police. Specifically, we use three waves of data from a multisite longitudinal study of youth to examine the effects of individual change over time in delinquent behavior and arrest on corresponding attitudes towards the police.



Session 6.2: Substance Abuse

Panel Chair: Bruce Johnson



"Updating Howard S. Becker’s Theories on Using Marijuana for Pleasure & Marijuana Careers"

Michael Hallstone

This paper uses current data to update Howard S. Becker's theories on using marijuana for pleasure (1953) and marijuana careers (1973) using an ethnically diverse sample. It confirms and expands upon the findings of a recent replication of Becker's original study. Although the main tenets of Becker's social processed theory of marijuana use

have survived the test of time rather well, current data suggests that some significant aspects of the theories are in need of revision. The majority of people get intoxicated the first time they smoke marijuana, they no longer have to learn to detect they are intoxicated through social interaction with other users, and most immediately found the

experience pleasurable. The findings also suggest that Becker's (1973) marijuana career theory is in need of revision. Revisions to both theories seem to be due historical changes in the marijuana scene and not theoretical oversight by Becker.


"Workplace Drug Testing & Organizational Context: The Implications of Industrial Sector, Organizational Size, & Workplace Social Control on Drug Testing at Work" Hannah K. Knudsen

Since the 1980s, workplace testing for the use of illicit drugs has been promoted as a tool for addressing America’s drug problem. Studies have focused on the accuracy of testing and attitudes towards testing, but few studies have examined the role that the organizational context plays in the adoption of testing as a management technique. This paper utilizes data from the 1997 National Employee Survey (NES), a nationally representative sample of full-time American workers, to address two main research questions. First, how does drug testing vary across industrial sectors and by organizational size? Second, do certain patterns of social control in work organizations increase the likelihood that an organization tests its employees for the use of illicit drugs? Logistic regression analyses revealed significant variations in three types of drug testing (preemployment screening, "for-cause" testing, and random testing) between industries. Organizational size was also significantly associated with the likelihood that an organization tests its workers for drugs. Additionally, workplaces that employed more bureaucratic and technical methods of social control were significantly more likely to utilize drug testing.


"Diversity & Justice in Substance Abuse Policy: Experiences from a California Perinatal Substance Abuse Law"

Dorie Klein

Research on substance abuse policy suggests that, overall, the socioeconomic and ethnic characteristics of drug users can deeply affect drug policy. However, this influence can be complex, and may be filtered through other influences, such as a drug’s legality and gender-specific concerns for abuse. For example, there have been considerable policy initiatives in recent years related to substance use by pregnant and parenting women. These range from public health concerns over preventing fetal alcohol effects from drinking among the general population of pregnant women, to penal and civil laws targeting mothers of drug-exposed infants primarily comprised of "crack babies", to new child welfare policies on removal of children who have been exposed to methamphetamine manufacture. This paper examines how potential dilemmas related to socioeconomic and ethnic justice were seen and handled by key players during the fashioning of a major 1990 California law on perinatal substance abuse, called Senate Bill 2669. We limit our analysis her to the issues of potential racial or social class bias that were explicitly raised during the lawmaking process in relation to the decisions that had to be made on the substance of the law and its follow-up regulations. We specifically focus on the key players’ selection of recommended criteria for hospitals to use to identify and report cases of perinatal substance use or exposure. The analysis is based on data from 37 in-depth interviews that were held with key lawmakers and policy advisors, as part of a long-term multi-method assessment of Senate Bill 2669 in California.


"Public Policies Impact on Lives of Heroin Users in Sydney & New York"

Bruce Johnson & Lisa Maher

This paper will document the varied impacts of a variety of public policies and community upon the lifestyles of heroin users, with a focus upon HIV/AIDS, in New York and Sydney. We report initial findings from an ethnographic longitudinal study comparing matched pairs of heroin users in New York and Sydney (n=32). Subjects were recruited using snowball sampling techniques and matched on variables known to be associated with HIV seropositivity in IDU. In-depth interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed annually (1995-1997). Participants were tested yearly for the presence of HIV using the Calypte Biomedical HIV-1 Urine EIA screen with repeatedly reactive specimens confirmed by Western blot modified for urine specimens. Despite important differences between societies, matched heroin users in New York (USA) and Sydney (AUS) reported similar levels of heroin use, risk-taking behaviors, including syringe sharing and unprotected sex (see table), and contacts with authorities. The types of crimes committed were similar in drug selling, but non drug criminality was substantially different.



Session 6.3: Criminal Justice in Diverse Locations

Panel Chair: Michael Perez



"A Comparative Analysis of Economic Development & Drug Related Crimes in South & Central America"

Armando Espinosa

A cross-national study is provided in order to understand the trends of drug trafficking among Latin American countries. The main focus of the study is the economic relevance that drug trafficking brings to these countries. This study encompasses a comparison between countries’ gross domestic product and the drug trafficking instances recorded in the several statistical sources available. The study includes the following countries as subjects: Mexico, Colombia, Argentina, Chile, Bolivia, Panama, Nicaragua, Venezuela, Peru, Guatemala, and Belize among others.


"A Community Under Siege: A Profile of a Laotian Gang Banger"

Ron Cowart

Abstract unavailable.


"Substance Use, Delinquency, & Violence in the Pacific"

Michael P. Perez, Thomas K. Pinhey, & Randall L. Workman

This paper explores the relationships among substance use, violent behavior and delinquency among Asian and Pacific Islander youth in the United States territory of Guam. Based on univariate, bivariate and multiple regression analyses, findings are presented on correlations among various uses of substances, willingness to use substances, perceptions of violence, and the relationship of substance use and delinquency, namely violent deviant behavior. Implications for prevention and intervention in the political and cultural context of Guam and the Pacific Islands are discussed in terms of differential association, social control and reintegrative shaming theories. Prospects for future research, policy implications and prevention strategies are also discussed in light of the cross-cultural findings.


"Gangs & Drug Related Gang Violence in Laredo, Texas: Some Observations and Preliminary Findings"

Albert G. Mata

Part of a larger project, this paper reports the preliminary findings of a three-year study effort of gangs in Laredo, Texas. The project's larger study examines the epidemiology of drug related violence among Mexican American youth in two communities and three

major neighborhoods in Laredo, Texas. The paper concludes with a section on the need for: Public health models and community field studies rather than interdictive models and CJS based studies of drugs and violence along the U.S./Mexico border and between twin border communities. Support for the development and evaluation of basic, applied and policy data and studies of drugs and violence along the U.S./Mexico border. Bi-national collaborative studies of drugs and violence along the U.S./Mexico border and between twin border communities.



Session 6.4: Domestic Violence: Assessment & Intervention Issues

Panel Chair: Janet Johnston


"Current Status of Spouse Assault Risk Assessment"

Marvin W. Acklin, Lisa Kaneshiro, & Amanda Powers

The field of violence risk assessment has undergone considerable growth during the past decade and continues to evolve toward actuarial predictive models. This paper will examine efforts to extend developing risk assessment models to domestic violence. Against the background of a recently developed violence risk assessment measure (Violence Risk Assessment Guide: VRAG, Quinsey, Harris, Rice, & Cormier, 1998), two emergent measures for spouse assault risk assessment will be reviewed: the Spouse Assault Risk Assessment (SARA) and MOSAIC (Trone, 1999). Current adequacy of risk assessment models, methodologies, and efficacy will be reviewed and discussed.


"Aid or Band-Aid? Perspectives From the Front-Lines on Community Treatment Programs for Abusive Men"

Sue Bartuk

The present paper outlines key findings of an exploratory, qualitative research study examining the potentiality for the effectiveness of community treatment programs for abusive men from a feminist perspective. By garnering the knowledge of practitioners (both facilitators working with abusive men and front-line workers providing services to battered women) working in the area of domestic violence, the study explores several key themes converging on the efficacy of such programs as interventions to violence against women. First, the study investigates the extent to which the programs in the Vancouver, BC. area are guided my a feminist perspective. Second, the limitations and benefits (success and attrition rates) of such programs, as well as proposed suggestions to augment the efficacy of the programs' service delivery (treatment philosophies and goals) in order to curtail and/or eliminate the abuse of women is explored. Lastly, inter-comparisons are drawn between the facilitators working with abusive men and front-line workers assisting female victims, in terms of their perceptions on community programs for abusive men, as an integral part of the response to ending violence against women.


"The Santa Clara County Juvenile & Domestic Family Violence Court: A Report on a New Court for Young Family Violence Offenders"

Inger Sagatun-Edwards, Hon. Eugene Hyman, Sue Penighetti, Ray Ortiz, & Karen Berlin

This paper addresses the growing problem of juvenile and family violence offenders. Santa Clara County in California has recently instituted a specialized domestic violence court for juvenile offenders, including a dedicated probation department unit and additional services for both victims and offenders. The court is modeled on the adult domestic violence court, and uses close monitoring of offenders and special services for offenders, their victims and families. The program provides legal advocacy and support for the victims, and rehabilitation plans for the offenders that stress accountability through a restorative justice perspective, competency skills development, and family conferencing parent empowerment groups.


"Educational & Therapeutic Interventions for Children of Family Violence: An Overview"

Janet Johnston

This paper reviews the current status of prevention and intervention for child witnesses to domestic violence. Different responses to the problem have been evoked by very different populations and different theoretical conceptualizations as to underlying etiology and developmental implications for children. Three main approaches will be identified and compared: psycho-educational curriculum for groups of children in battered women's programs, post-traumatic stress disorder therapy for children exposed to acute episodes of extreme violence, and therapeutic curricula for children of chronically conflicted and intermittently-violent separating and divorced families.

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